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Předmět Vybrané otázky lingvistiky angličtiny (AAA500002)

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Core course WT 2012-13Selected Problems in English Linguistics 1. (3 October) Expressing Indefiniteness in English (Libuše Dušková)An account of grammatical means serving to express indefinite reference of nouns (indefinite article, zero article, some) with respect to semantic differentiation and the function in functional sentence perspective.References:Dušková, L. (1997), "Expressing Indefiniteness in English", Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Philologica 5, 1997, Prague Studies in English 22, 33-50.R. Quirk et al., A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, London 1985, 5.26-59.R. Huddleston and G. J. Pullum, Cambridge Grammar of the English Language,  Cambridge University Press 2002  5.6.2, 8.4.D. Biber et al., Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, London 1999, 4.4.1.  2. (10 October)The students can choose between topics a. and b.a. On Some Distinctions between British and Czech Grammatical Theory (Libuše Dušková)A discussion of terminological faux amis, distinctions due to a different approach to identical language facts, distinctions due to partly different language facts, distinctions based on the existence of language-specific categories absent in the other language. References:Dušková, L. (1999), Studies in the English Language, Part 2, Chaps. 28, 29. KarolinumCharles University Press, Prague,R. Quirk et al., A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Chaps. 14, 15R. Huddleston and G. J. Pullum, Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, Chap. 11Biber, D. et al., Longman Grammar of  Spoken and Written English 3.10, 3.11. b. The nature and the functions of the passive (Libuše Dušková)An account of the forms, meanings and functions of the passive, showing its gradient nature, formally and functionally  related categories, and its role in the information structure (functional sentence perspective). References:R. Quirk et al., A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, London 1985, Chapter3, pp. 159-171 (esp. 167-171)Vilém Mathesius, Obsahový rozbor současné angličtiny na základě obecně lingvistickém,Praha 1961,  pp. 121-131; / English translation A Functional Analysis of Present Day English on a general linguistic basis, Praha 1975, pp. 107-114.L. Dušková, Studies in the English Language, Part 1, Chapter 6 (On some functional andstylistic aspects of the passive in present-day English ). Karolinum-Charles UniversityPress, Prague 1999. 3. (17 October) Using corpora in contrastive research 1: Copular predications in English and in Czech(Markéta Malá) Copular clauses are used in both English and Czech to ascribe a quality, property or value to the subject. While both languages make use of copular verbs be and become (být, stát se, respectively, in Czech), the repertoire of copular verbs is much broader in English, making it possible to distinguish between various types of attribution (e.g., verbs of ‘seeming’, attribution based on perception, verbs of ‘remaining’ etc.). The question then arises of what means are employed in Czech to express such ‘modified attribution’ and, on the other hand, what the constructions used in Czech can suggest of the meaning of the respective copular verbs in English.The material is drawn from a parallel translation corpus of Czech and English fiction texts - InterCorp. We shall also rely on it to illustrate some ways in which multilingual corpora can be employed in contrastive research (types of correspondence, counterparts as markers of function, etc). References:InterCorp: Czech National Corpus and Corpora of Other Languages, http://www.korpus.cz/intercorpDušková, Libuše (2004): Syntactic Constancy of the Subject Complement, Part 1: A Comparison between Czech and English. Linguistica Pragensia XIV/2, 57-71.Dušková, Libuše (2005): Syntactic Constancy of the Subject Complement, Part 2: A Comparison between English and Czech. Linguistica Pragensia XV/1, 1-17.Johansson, S. (2007): Seeing through Multilingual Corpora. On the Use of Corpora in Contrastive Studies, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Teubert, W. (2001) ‘Corpus Linguistics and Lexicography’, International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, Vol. 6 (Special Issue), 125-153. 4. (24 October)Participial postmodifying clauses (Pavlína Šaldová)The lecture focuses on the participial forms in their postmodifying function, delimiting their syntactic and semantic properties in comparison with participles in other syntactic functions, such as adverbial function, and the finite forms of modification. References:Dušková, Libuše (2011) 'A Textual View of Noun Modificaton', in Černý et al. (eds.) NewChapters in Functional Syntax. Ostrava, 18-30.Fox, B. a S.A. Thompson (2007) 'Relative Clauses in English Conversation', Studies inLanguage 31: 2, 293-326.Quirk, R., et al. (1985), Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Longman.Kortmann, B. (1991), Free Adjuncts and Absolutes in English, Routledge, London.Vachek, J. (1955), "Some Thoughts on the So-called Complex Condensation in ModernEnglish", Sborník prací filosofické fakulty brněnské university A3, 63-7Šaldová, Pavlína and Markéta Malá (2010) 'Discourse-pragmatic Functions of Participial            Clauses in Preverbal Position', in Procházka, Martin, Markéta Malá, Pavlína Šaldová(eds)  The Prague School and Theories of Structure, Goettingen: V&R Unipress. pp177-189. 5. (31 October) Tough-constructions in English (Jiřina Popelíková)The seminar will focus on some of the idiosyncratic features of tough-predicate clauses on the level of syntax and the relation of the formal structure of these constructions to their basic FSP characteristics. References:Biber, D. et al. (1999) Longman Grammmar of Spoken and Written English. London:Longman.Firbas, J. (1992) Functional sentence perspective in written and spoken communication.Cambridge: University Press.Mair, C. (1989) Infinitival Complement Clauses in English: A Study of Syntax in Discourse (Studies in English Language). Cambridge: University Press.Mair, C. (1987) "Tough-movement in Present-day British English: A corpus-based study".Studia Linguistica 41, 1, p.59-71.Miki, Nozomi. (2000) "Tough constructions: Their tense and aspect. " Kyoto Seika Daigaku Kenkyuu Kiyou 19. Kyoto: Kyoto Seika University.Quirk, R. et al. (1985) Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London:Longman. 6. (7 November) The expression of interpersonal metadiscourse in Czech and English academic texts (Marcela Sudková)The seminar focuses on expressing interpersonal function in Czech and English academic texts dealing with linguistics. The aim is to introduce the concept of interpersonal metadiscourse, its means of expression and some of the approaches to this phenomenon. A contrastive study of Czech and English academic texts will also be discussed, offering an example of a detailed and corpus-based analysis. References: Biber, D. (2006): University Language. A corpus-based study of spoken and written             registers. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Čmejrková, S. (1994): Nonnative (academic) writing. In: Čmejrková S. - Daneš F. -            Havlová E. (eds): Writing vs Speaking: Language, Text, Discourse,             Communication. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, pp. 303-310.Čmejrková, S. - Daneš F. - Světlá J. (1999): Jak napsat odborný text. Praha: LEDA.Hyland, K. - Tse, P. (2004): Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: A Reappraisal. In:            Applied Linguistics 25/2, pp. 156-157.Mauraren, A. (1993): Contrastive ESP Rhetoric: Metatext in Finnish-English            Economic Texts. In: English for Specific Purposes 12, pp. 3-22.Sanderson, T. (2008): Corpus. Culture. Discourse. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.Sudková, M. (2012): Vyjadřování interpersonální funkce v českých a anglických odbornýchtextech. Kontrastivní studie. In: Časopis pro moderní filologii 2/2012, pp. 31-42. 7. (14 November)Semantic structure of ditransitive complementation and object deletion in ditransitive verbs (Gabriela Brůhová)The lecture introduces semantic structure of ditransitive complementation. It focuses on the semantic roles of direct and indirect object, and on dative alternation (i.e. alternation between the prepositional and non-prepositional construction). Next, it will be demonstrated that a ditransitive construction semantically always includes three participants (i.e. S and two objects), although syntactically, the objects do not have to be made explicit and one of the objects can be omitted. References:Allerton, D. J. (1978) ‘Generating indirect objects in English’. Journal of Linguistics 14:21-33.Biber, D. et al. (1999) Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: LongmanBrůhová, G. (2010) Syntactic, Semantic and FSP aspects of ditransitive complementation: a study of give, lend, send, offer and show. PhD thesis. Prague: Charles University.Dušková, L. (2004) Mluvnice současné angličtiny na pozadí češtiny. Praha: AcademiaHuddleston, R. &  Pullum, G.K. (2002) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: University PressMukherjee, J. (2005) English Ditransitive Verbs: Aspects of Theory, Description and a Usage-based Model. Amsterdam - New York: RodopiQuirk, R. et al. (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman   8. (21 November) Prominence Patterns in Spoken English (Jan Volín) Temporal organization of speech events can, under certain circumstances, generate a perceptual phenomenon called the rhythm. Although its importance in speech communication is not particularly clear from traditional phonological descriptions, recent discoveries inpsychophonetic and neurophonetic laboratories indicate that the rhythm of speech is closely connected with the phonotactics of the language and influences large number of processes from speech acquisition to discourse management.References:Crystal, D. (1996). The past, present and future of English rhythm. In: M. Vaughan-Rees(Ed.) Changes in pronunciation. Whitstable: IATEFL Pronsig.Grabe, E. and Low, E.L. (2002). Durational variability in speech and the rhythm class. In: C.Gussenhoven & N. Warner (Eds.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology 7, pp. 515-546, Mouton de Gruyter.Ramus, F., Nespor, M. & Mehler, J. (1999). Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speechsignal. Cognition 73, pp. 265-292.Volín, J. (2010). On the significance of the temporal structuring of speech. In: M.Malá &P.Šaldová (Eds.) ...for thy speech bewrayeth thee (A Festschrift for Libuše Dušková), pp. 289-305. Praha: UK FF, ISBN 978-80-7308-299-4.Volín, J. & Pollák, P. (2009). The dynamic dimension of the global speech-rhythm attributes.In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (Interspeech 2009), pp. 1543-1546. Brighton: ISCA.  9. (28 November) English Prepositions (Aleš Klégr)A supplement to the part-of-speech description provided by the BA-level morphology seminar, the lecture introduces English prepositions and surveys their definition, functions and features, formal and semantic classification. References:Quirk, R., et al. (1985), Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, (Chap. 9 Prepositions and prepositional phrases), Longman, London.Dušková, L. et al. (1988, 3. vyd. 2003): Mluvnice současné angličtiny na pozadí češtiny, Praha: Academia.  10. (5 December) ELT in the 20th century - trends and innovations (Tomáš Gráf)The seminar will provide an overview of the key trends in the development of ELT from the end of the Reform Movement to the current era of post-method pedagogy with a view to developing a critical awareness of the field. The students will:- learn the salient characteristics of 20th-century language teaching methods;- develop an overview of the key trends in ELT;- recognize key figures in the development of ELT methodology and understand their contribution to the field;- place the development of ELT in a broader historical and linguistic context;- learn to identify the factors tha lead to changes in the existing paradigms. References:Adamson, B. (2004) 'Fashions in Language Teaching Methodology'. In: Davies, A. & C.Elder The Handbook of Applied Linguistics, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Crystal, D. (2007) The Fight for English, Oxford University PressHowatt, A. P. R. & H. G. Widdowson (2004) A History of English Language Teaching,Oxford University PressKelly, L. G. (1969) 25 Centuries of Language Teaching, Newbury HouseLarsen-Freeman, D. (2000) Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, OxfordUniversity Press.Richards, J. C. & T. S. Rodgers (2001) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (2ndedn.), Cambridge University PressSmith, R. C. (ed.) (2003) Teaching English as a Foreign Language, 1912-1936. Pioneers ofELT, RoutledgeSmith, R. C. (ed.) (2004) Teaching English as a Foreign Language, 1936-1961. Foundationsof ELT, Routledge   11. (12 December)Measuring typological syntheticity of English diachronically with the use of corpora (Ondřej Tichý & Jan Čermák)The paper proposes a quantitative, but holistic methodology for establishing a level of morphological syntheticity. The methodology is based on a series of corpus-based probes into morphological behaviour of selected high-frequency nouns, adjectives and verbs from Old English to Present-Day English. Reflecting on the distribution of the morphological markers in the four periods under scrutiny, levels of syntheticity are established that correspond to the textbook story of a typological re-shapement in the history of English.References:/The British National Corpus, /version 3 (BNC XML Edition).//(2007)/. /Distributed byOxford University Computing Services on behalf of the BNC Consortium. //Bosworth, J. (ongoing). /An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary Online/ (T. N. Toller, S. Christ, O. Tichy, Eds.). Retrieved June 30, 2012, from http://www.bosworthtoller.com/.//Campbell, A. (1983)./Old English Grammar. /Oxford: Clarendon Press./Dictionary of Old English Corpus/; original release (1981). Compiled by Angus Cameron, Ashley Crandell Amos, Sharon Butler, and Antonette diPaolo Healey (Toronto: DOE Project 1981); 2009 release compiled by Antonette diPaolo Healey, Joan Holland, Ian McDougall, & David McDougall, with TEI-P5 conformant-version by Xin Xiang (Toronto: DOE Project 2009).Greenberg, J. H. (1960). A Quantitative Approach to the Morphological Typology of Language. /International Journal of American Linguistics/, 26, 178-194./The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts/(1991). Department of English, University of Helsinki. Compiled by Matti Rissanen, Merja Kytö; Leena Kahlas-Tarkka, Matti Kilpiö; Saara Nevanlinna, Irma Taavitsainen; Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg.McSparran F. (ongoing), /The Middle English Compendium. /Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Digital Library Production Service. Retrieved from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/mec/.Oakes, M. P. (1998). /Statistics for corpus linguistics/. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.///Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Early Modern English/. (2004). Compiled by Anthony Kroch, Beatrice Santorini & Ariel Diertani. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/hist-corpora/PPCEME-RELEASE-2/index.html./Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English/(2000) (2^nd ed.). Compiled by Anthony Kroch & Ann Taylor. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/hist-corpora/PPCME2-RELEASE-3/index.html.Plank, F. (1999). Split morphology: How agglutination and flexion mix. /Linguistic/ /Typology/,//3, 279-340.Skalička, V., & Sgall, P. (1994). Praguian Typology of Languages. In Ph. A. Luelsdorff (Ed.), /Prague School of Structural and Functional Linguistics: A Short Introduction /(pp. 333-357)/. /Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Szmrecsanyi, B. (forthcoming). Analyticity and Syntheticity in the History of English. In T. Nevalainen, & E. C. Traugott (Eds.), /Rethinking the History of English /(pp. 654-665). Oxford: Oxford University Press http://www.benszm.net/omnibuslit/Szmrecsany_ANSYNhist_Rethinking_pageproofs.pdfTaylor, A., & Warner, A., & Pintzuk, S., & Beths, F. (2003). /The York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose/.Taylor, A., & Warner, A., & Pintzuk, S., & Plug, L. (2001). /The York-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Poetry./Wright, J., & Wright, E. M. (1925). Old English Grammar (3rd ed.). London: Oxford University Press.  12. (19 December)Word-formation, vocabulary and typological change: the evidence of Early Middle English (Jan Čermák)The seminar offers an empirical probe into the mechanism of typological change in the history of English as reflected in the word-formation and lexis of Early Middle English copies of selected Old English homiletic texts.References (selection):Clemoes, P. (1997),  Ælfric's Catholic Homilies,  The First Text, EETS, s.s. 17, London.Morris, R. (ed.) (1867, 1868/1988), Old English Homilies. Early English Texts Society 29, 34. First Series. 2 vols. London.Warner, R.D.N. (ed.) (1917), Early English Homilies from the Twelfth-Century MS. Vespasian D.XIV. EETS 152. London.Kastovsky, D. (1992), "Semantics and Vocabulary", in: Hogg, R. M. (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume I: The Beginnings to 1066, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 290-409.Popela, J. (2006), Skaličkova jazyková typologie. Ed. Bohumil Vykypěl a Vít Boček. Brno: Masarykova univerzita.Mathesius V. (1939-40), "Příspěvek k strukturálnímu rozboru anglické zásoby slovní",  Časopis pro moderní filologii 26, č. 1, pp. 79-84  13. (2 January) Some observations on zero morphemes in linguistic diachrony (Jan Čermák)In acknowledgment of the fact that much more work is needed to project recent progress in morphological theory onto individual language histories, the seminar session will attempt to survey the rise and functions of morphemes that systematically have zero expression in Old English, i.e. the "zero exponents" of the structuralist tradition, in the light of the current theory. In a diachronic perspective, i.e. against the background of a gradual reorientation of English from stem-based to word-based morphology, special attention will be paid to the divide between inflexional and derivational morphology, between typological inflexion and agglutination, and to the problem of fusion.References (selection):Bauer, L. - Valera, S. (eds) (2005) Approaches to Conversion/Zero-derivation. Waxmann: Münster.Bybee, J. L. (1985) Morphology. A Study between Meaning and Form. Benjamins.Campbell, A. (1983) Old English Grammar. Rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Čermák, J. (2010) "The Case of Old English N-stem Masculine Derivatives: A typological contribution to categorization in English word-formation". In: M. Malá and P. Šaldová (eds.), …for thy speech bewrayeth thee. A Festschrift for Libuše Dušková. Prague: Univerzita Karlova v Praze, 73-92.Haspelmath M. (2002): Understanding Morphology. London: Arnold.Jakobson, R. (1939/1971) ‘Signe zéro’. Repr. in Selected Writings II: Word and Language. The Hague-Paris, 211-219.Kastovsky, D. (2006) "Typological Changes in Derivational Morphology", in A. van Kemenade and B. Loos (eds) The Handbook of the History of English. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 151-176.Sgall, P. (1995) "Prague School Typology", in M. Shibatani and T. Bynon (eds.) Approaches to Language Typology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 49-85.Skalička, V. and P. Sgall (1994) "Praguian Typology of Languages", in Luelsdorff, Ph. A. (ed.) Prague School of Structural and Functional Linguistics: A Short Introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 333-357   

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prof. PhDr. Libuše Dušková, DrSc.