12b history of the usa II.
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History of the USA 1904-1914: Panama Canal 1914-1918: WWI 1st world war/World war one 11th November (the official end) USA entered in 1917 Because Germany sank ship with US citizens Before that policy of isolation (no interest) Russia (CCCP) withdrew from the war – they stopped fighting 116 000 soldiers willed, 53 000 KIA (= killed in action) After WWI USA became the world creditor Became financial superpower and financial centre #1 World financial centre moved from London to Wall Street (NY) 1920 League of Nations Today's UN (=OSN) Policy of isolation (USA) Immigration restricted Prohibition of alcohol Gangsters (elite, example: Chicago) 1929: Great crash on Wall Street World Crisis US Crisis 1932 17 mil. people unemployed "Great Depression" 1932: New president President: Franklin Delano Roosevelt New Deal = 1st attempt of intervention into US economy Buying surpluses (přebytky) from farmers Trade unions (odbory) Old age + disability pensions Subsides (dotace) After 2 years → 3 mil. Unemployed Extremely popular president, served 3 terms as president, elected 4 times (but he died) WWII 1st September 1939 – 2nd September 1945 War in Asia Pearl Harbour on 7th December 1941 (Sunday) Before: Japan attack China → US embargo on supplies for Japan Japanese airplanes attacked US Harbour without declaring – aircraft carriers (letadlové lodě) US army was lucky – aircraft carriers were not in Pearl Harbour It could be worse US army vs. Japan (in Pacific) Battles: Midway, Iwojima, Guadalcanal Breaking point of the war: Battle of Midway US won, Japan lost 3 aircraft carriers 1943 – Guadalcanal US won the biggest sea battle War in Europe In 1943 Sicily (is free) Eisenhower's plan Husky (invasion in Sicily) Italy There invasions were training or the D-Day 6th June 1944: Invasion in Normandy Opened west front in Europe The D-Day/Operation Overlord Successful US army great losses 7 000 US kills (8 000 US + GB soldiers), 7 000 Germans kills, 20 000 French civilians Germany retreats: last attack in Ardennes April 1945: Roosevelt dies His vice president Truman (right wing, Democrat) becomes president 8th May 1945 Since that day war was over (in Europe) USA vs. Japan Japan is still fighting – Kamikadze 6th August – Hirosima (nuclear bomb – little boy) 9th August – Nagasaki (fat man) Reason – to show the power to Soviet Union Pres. responsible Harry Truman 2nd September 1945 The end of war in Asia Japan capitulates End of the war in world Led to the Cold War with Russia 400 000 losses, 250 000 KIA (= killed in action) cca: US = GB = ČR (same) Russia cca 20 000 000