8) History of Great Britain II. - Jacobite Raising
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8. History of Great Britain II. GLORIOUS REVOLUTION The Jacobites were a group of mostly Scottish people in the late 17th and 18th century, who believed that the Catholic James VII of Scotland (James II of England) and his Stuart descendants should be restored to the throne of Scotland and England. The widely unpopular James had been deposed by the Protestant thinking Parliament in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and he was then forced into exile. His Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange took the throne and put Britain back into Protestant rule. If you want to simplify things, you could think of it as Catholics versus Protestants, or the Scots versus the English, which is probably what it meant for a lot of people at the time. 1715 RAISING After James VII (or II) died in 1701, his son, James Francis Edward (known in England as The Old Pretender) gained the Jacobite’s support. As a result of that there was the 1715 rising. James was corresponding with the Earl of Mar and then called on him to raise the clans. Earl of Mar summoned the clan leaders and together they proclaimed James the rightful king and raised the old Scottish standard. They were successful for a while but in the end they lost at the Battle of Preston. King James “The Old Pretender” fled back to France. 1745 RAISING AND BONNIE PRINCE CHARLIE After that there was Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie to the Scots, The Young Pretender to the English) was James VII and II’s Catholic grandson. Despite being born and brought up in Rome, he believed the English and Scottish thrones were his birthright, and the Jacobites agreed. In 1745 Charles attempted to raise an army in the West Highlands to defeat the Hanoverian George II, and almost managed it with the support of Highlanders. But by that point most Scots and English people had gone off the idea of the Jacobites. In the end the Jacobite army lost at the Battle of Culloden and it was a quick massacre .Charlie fled the battlefield towards exile in France. That was the end of the Jacobites and the Highland culture. HOW IT AFFECTED THE PRESENCE The two major Jacobite risings, which happened in 1715 and 1745, became known as “The Fifteen” and “The Forty-Five”, in which Jacobite soldiers fought English Protestant in a series of bloody battles and uprisings. Some Scottish people who voted in favour of Scottish independence in 2014 are now calling themselves The Forty-Five, or The 45 per cent, because the Yes campaign won 45 per cent of the vote in the referendum. I’m sure the coincidence isn’t lost on them. SCOTTISH AND BRITISH RIVALRY The Scottish and British rivalry is not quite dead even now. Up until this day there is a verse in UK’s anthem that mentions “crushing rebellious Scots”. This part of the anthem is understandably usually not sung these days.