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Geography of The United Kingdom

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22 – GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM The UK is situated to the northwest of the European continent. The country includes British Isles - the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands (Isle of Man, Isle of Wight, Orkney, and the Shetlands). Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea size – half the size of France (almost245 000 sq km) 60 million people The UK consists of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland England capital is London symbol is red and white rose patron is St. George – St. George’s cross the oldest and richest part, flat Wales Cardiff Welsh dragon, symbol – daffodil St. David hilly, 2 languages – English and Gaelic (Celts) Scotland Edinburgh symbol – thistle St. Andrew – St. Andrew’s cross Scottish Gaelic, Hadrian’s wall, castles, kilts, back pipes own Parliament, own coins, highlands Northern Ireland Belfast shamrock St. Patrick – St. Patrick’s cross protestants – struggle with Republic of Ireland (catholic) The Giant’s Causeway These 4 parts are divided into smaller counties (shires) Flag - Union Jack – red St. George’s cross (England and Wales) + the diagonal white cross of St. Andrew (Scotland) + the diagonal red cross of St. Patrick (Northern Ireland), first appeared in 1801 Climate mild, humid (wet), little differences in temperature its variability is due to the temperate maritime climate winters are milder because of the warming effect on the North Atlantic drift (The Gulf Stream), summers are occasionally hot but 50 % of the year the skies are cloudy and overcast “Emerald Island” – much greener grass (English lawn) Features: Highlands Scotland the highest mountain in the UK Ben Nevis (1 343 m), the Grampian mountains The Southern Uplands The Pennines Wales – the Cambrian mountains the eastern and southern parts of England are lower and high ground is referred to as hills, downs or heights – The Chiltern Hills, The South Downs, The East Anglican Heights Penites, The Giant’s Causeway the lowest point is minus 4m in the drained Fens of East Anglia Waters lakes – Loch Lomond, Loch Ness, Lake District in England, Lough Neagh – the biggest in Northern Ireland rivers – not very long but deep and fast The Thames – influenced by the sea (tide) the Severn, Clyde, Mersey, Tweedy, Avon The Thames Barriers – protection of London network of canals and rivers – inland freight traffic (in the 19th century) ports – London, Portsmouth, Dover, Liverpool, Manchester, The Clyde, Grimsby Few forests – only for industry – timber, Sharewood industrial revolution – cut down trees – place for sheep + people went to cities Moorland– Yorkshire moors, peat,marches,bogs Agriculture – good climate – always agriculture; livestock, farming wild animals (foxes, hares...) moved to cities because of no forests – subber gardens in cities Holiday centers – The South-East, North Devon coast, Welsh mountains, Lake District, Scottish Highlands, Yorkshire moors Cities: London Bath – was established as a spa town by the ancient Romans in 43 AD, and you can still admire the Roman baths there, built over hot springs (= places where hot water naturally flows from the earth). The city also has some great examples of 18th-century Georgian architecture (Georgian terraces and crescents, terraced houses), and it is connected with the writer Jane Austen, who used to live there. There is a canal which connects this city with London and eastern part Canterbury – Cathedral, Thomas Beckett, St. Augustine Cambridge + Oxford– are famous university towns, and their universities are among the oldest in the world. Even if you are not a student, you can enjoy the old architecture of the colleges and their special atmosphere. The River Cam in Cambridge is a popular place for punting (= boating in long narrow boats moved by pushing a long pole against the riverbed). Edinburgh - The capital city of Scotland is known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of festivals held over about four weeks from early August. Among the notable places in Edinburgh is Edinburgh Castle, which dominates the skyline of the city, and Holyrood house, the Queen’s official residence while in Scotland. Stratford-upon-Avon– Shakespeare, timbered houses York - an ancient city that was very wealthy and powerful under the reign of the Vikings. York is also famous for its large Gothic cathedral. Portsmouth - If you are interested in naval history, you should go to Portsmouth on the south coast of England. You can visit the Royal Naval Museum there and see a number of famous old ships Lake District- If you prefer countryside to cities, you may enjoy the Lake District, a region with beautiful scenery, mountains and lakes. Lake Windermere is the largest lake in Britain. The region is also connected with the “Lake Poets”, a group of 19th-century romantic poets who lived there and were inspired by the place (William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge...) Wales – the festival “Eistenddfod”, national costumes, herd of sheep, climbing, outdoor activities, water falls

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