The united kingdom
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18.MO – The United Kingdom - basic geographical and historical facts - flag, anthem, … - type of administration (vláda) - economy - culture and its difference - places of interest - famous people Osnova: GeographyHistoryNational symbolsAdministrationEconomyMonuments and famous placesFamous people Lokalita – počasí – největší hory – velká města – hlavní městaStručná historie (nejdůležitější data od vzniku až po současnost) – prehistoric England – Iberians – Celts – Romans – Anglo Saxons – Vikings – Normans – hundert years war – War of roses – Tudors – Stuarts – Gregorian – Victoria – modern ageVlajka, hymna, erbVláda, politický systémEkonomikaSlavná místa a památkySlavní lidé I would like to speak about Great Britain. At first I´m gonna talk about geography, than i would like to tell you some historical facts, something about political system and economy. And the last part will be about places of interest and famous pepole. GEOGRAPHY: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain.Lying on the north-western coast of the European mainland.The country includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island or Ireland and many smaller islandsConsists of four countries- England, Wales, Scotland and Northern IrelandCapital city is London, it is also the capital of EnglandThe Capital of Scotland is EdinburghThe capital of Wales is CardiffThe capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast.Another big cities: Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester in London. Londonderry in Northern Ireland. Glasgow in Scotland and Swansea in Wales.Surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and English Channel, also known as a La Manche.Between Great Britain and Ireland lies the Irish Sea.A rea of 243 km211th-largest state in Europe22nd-most populous country64, 1 million inhabitantsThe largest rivers are Thames, the Severn and the Trent.Lakes are numerous in the Lake District, the largest being Windermere.The country can be divided into two regions – Highland and Lowland. The highland zone consist of the following groups of mountains: the Highland of Scotland with the highest peak Ben Nevis. The cheviot hills, which form the border between England and Scotland. Then the Pennines and the Cumbrian mountains.Climate is quite similar with Europe, there are mild summers, rainy, windy and cold winters. Generally, there is rainy weather (that is why the grass is so green there). HISTORY: Britain had become an Island in 5000 BC.5000BC – 100BC Prehistoric BritainStone circles were being erected – including Stonehenge – according to astronomical measurements.By 3000 BC Iberians (hunters) - lived in Britain.Probably around 200 BC Celts arrived to Britain from central Europe.Julius Caesar attempted Roman invasion of Britainwithdraws (odstoupil).Romans were in Britain to 410 AD.They built Hadrian’s wall,extensive (rozsáhlou) network of straight roads.410 AD Anglo Saxons.Britain is divided up into the Seven Kingdoms (Northumbria, Wessex, Sussex, …)Christianity is spread throughout Britain. 8th century - Vikingsinvaded (vtrhli) to Britain.Westminster Abbey is completed.Normans began to rule in 1066 when the William Conqueror won at the battle of Hasting.Built Canterbury CathedralIn 1078 the Tower of London was built.University of Cambridge was established.Beginning of English democracy.In 1215 Magna Carta was signed by king John.In the 14th century was the hundred years war between England and France.France wonIn the 15th century began the war of the Roses between the House of Lancaster and the House of Yorks. Both clans died.Tudors started to reign.Henry VIII. married Anne Boleyn.She gave birth to Elizabeth which started to rule in 1558.In England ruled in 17th century the Stuarts dynasty.This is the period in British history when a king wasexecuted (popraven)!In 1707, England and Scotland officially became one country: Great Britain.Gregorian BritainThe UK is created when Great Britain and Ireland are formally joined under the Act of Union in 1801.In 1837 Victoria becomes Queen.She reigned for more than 60 years.Expansion of Britain’s industrial power and of the British empire.The 20th centuryFirst and second world war.In 1925 Margaret Thatcher become first female prime ministerIn 1940 become prime minister Winston ChurchillIn 1953 Elizabeth II. was coronated. NATIONAL SYMBOLS: In 1801 was the Unionflag officially adopted as national flagAlso known as Union Jack.Made up of three crosses.The upright red cross is the St. Georges cross, the patron saint of England.The diagonal white cross is the cross of St. Andrews, the patron saint of Scotland.The diagonal red cross is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.Nationalanthem God saves the QueenBecame national symbol at the beginning of 19th century.Author is unknown.Royal coat of arms of the UK.It is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. ADMINISTRATION: Queen Elizabeth II. is the head of United Kingdom and its colonies.From House of Windsor.Married Philip the duke of Edinburgh4 childrenLine of succession first Prince Charles, second prince William and third Prince Henry (It is firstly taken by gender (males are before females) then by age)Government have executive functionLeader is prime minister - Theresa MayGeneral elections are every 5 yearsGovernment is responsible to theParliamentHighest authority in the UKConsist of House of Lords and House of commonsHouse of Lords is upper House - their members aren´t elected, it has approximately 760 membersHouse of commons is lower House - their members are elected, it has approximately 650 members.Political parties, for example The conservative party, The liberal democrats and The Labour party. ECONOMY: 2nd strongest economy in Europe.In 2016, the UK was thetenth-largest goods exporter in the world and thefifth-largest goods importer.Exported are mainly cars, packaged medicaments and gas turbines.Impor