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10. Stereotypes What is a stereotype? Well, according toMerriam-Webster, it means: (noun) an often unfair and untrue belief that many people have about all people or things with a particular characteristic (usually associated with race or religion).Racial/cultural stereotypes.(Adjective)A stereotypical representation/idea/approach.He’s the stereotypical absentminded professor. [=he’s a professor who is absentminded in the way that people often think of professors as being].Stereotypes are usually negative. In the table below stereotypes vocabulary in English are given, you can use these words beside your own words. Whenever we don’t have a good understanding of a subject, say, of people or countries, then we tend to make assumptions about them. A stereotype is nothing but those assumptions that have become common agreements. Whenever you make judgments about people without knowing them, you are stereotyping them. Stereotyping makes people generalize things. Because these assumptions are made with very little true knowledge, most often they are false. Though there are both positive and negative stereotypes, a majority of them are offensive. People generally stereotype out of bias against a particular group of people or religion. Stereotyping becomes a way of conveying their dislike. Of course, stereotyping stems from a commonly held view of a particular group or race. This view may arise from an incident or false assumption, and then may be used to color the entire community with the same brush. There are various types of stereotypes. However, the most common ones are racial stereotypes and gender stereotypes. Race, nationality, gender and sexual orientation are the main factors of stereotyping. Stereotyping must be avoided at all costs, as it leads to treating groups as a single entity. Given below are examples of stereotypes that people commonly use. Examples of Stereotypes Negative Stereotypes • Men who like pink are effeminate Positive Stereotypes • All Asians know Kung Fu. Racial Stereotypes • In the US all South Koreans are stereotyped as dry cleaners and all Mexicans as gardeners. Every race, culture, country, religion and a community has a stereotype. It is a way of oversimplifying groups of people. It is one of the easiest ways of establishing identity. By conforming to a fixed or conventional image, the identity can be recognized and understood. And, herein lies the problem. It’s hard to be objective if one doesn’t reject stereotypes. So, it is better not to use any stereotype and pass judgments only when you are familiar with others. Word/Phrase Meaning ethnicity Of or relating to races or large groups of people who have the same customs, religion, origin, etc. People of different ethnicities [=people who belong to different ethnic groups] generalize To make a general statement or to form a general opinion especially: to state an opinion about a larger group that is based on a smaller number of people or things within that group. She tends to generalize. racism (Disapproving): Poor treatment of or violence against people because of their race. Have you experienced racism? A protest against racism. culture The beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time. A study of Greek language and culture. intolerance (Disapproving) : Not willing to allow some people to have equality, freedom, or other social rights— often + of. Intolerance towards/to outsiders fighting the forces of racism and intolerance. assumption Something that is believed to be true or probably true but that is not known to be true : something that is assumed. I made the assumption that he was coming, so I was surprised when he didn’t show up. preconceived Always used before a noun: formed before having actual knowledge about something or before experiencing something — often + about or of. I didn’t have any preconceived ideas/notions about/of what the job would be like when I first started. false Not true or accurate, especially : deliberately untrue : done or said to fool or deceive someone. False testimony. False accusations/statements. prejudice An unfair feeling of dislike for a person or group because of race, gender, religion, etc. The organization fights against racial prejudice. — often + against. Evidence of prejudice against women and minorities. Religious, racial, and sexual prejudices. hatred A very strong feeling of dislike : hate. He had an irrational fear andhatred of foreigners. misunderstanding A usually minor argument or disagreement. An unfortunatemisunderstanding between old friends. We had our little misunderstandings in the past but we managed to clear them up long ago. segregation The practice or policy of keeping people of different races, religions, etc., separate from each other. Racial/religious segregation. They fought to end the segregation of public schools. The segregation of men and women. oversimplify To describe (something) in a way that does not include all the facts and details and that causes misunderstanding. pigeonhole She likes to perform different types of music because she doesn’t want to be pigeonholed.— often + as. She doesn’t want to be pigeonholed as a jazz mus