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2. Dialects of english

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2. Dialects of English Profile:Commonwealth/regional dialects, creole, international English State:American versus British English english is spoken in many parts of the World as a first or second languagecountries in which English is spoken as a first language are the U. S., Canada, the UK, New Zealend, Australia, The Republic of Ireland, South Africa, Malaysia, Singapore, Zimbabwe, Jamaica and some countries of Caribbeanthe British Empire is the main reason why English spread all around the Worldenglish is todaysLinqua Franca – Linqua Franca means a dominant international language of bussines and diplomacyfrench was Liqua Franca in 18th century and Latin before in mediaval timesUnited States helped the prominence of English language todaybicause of so wide extension (rozšíření) all around the World, English have various dialects (localised vocabilary and not standrart grammar) and is spoken by various accents (pronunciation)perhaps the most important split is between American and British English American Vs. Brtitish English american spelling have been changed to more phonetic, losing the French originpronunciationdiferrent word stress (diferent force and strenht when we are speaking – advertisement, jogurt)spelling – while the British spelling of words like COLOUR, FLAVOUR, RUMOUR, LABOUR ends with our, in American English these words end with or – COLOR, FLAVOR…British: theatre, centre, meter Vs. American: theater, center, meterBritish: organise, apologise Vs. American: organize, apologizedifferent vowel sound –I can´t /kant VS. kent/, bar /bar Vs. ber/different vocabulary –British: elevator, pavement, rubbish, holiday Vs. American: lift, sidewalk, trash/ garbagge, vacationAmerican English is frozen in time (e. g. fall instead of autumn)the first dictionary of English in America was written in 1806 by Noah Webster and since that time American English does not make any progress apart of words for technological inventionsthose are general differences but across the U. S. are many dialects spoken (Hispanic English, African American English) British dialects nacionalism– population massively increase (place of new beginning)migration from Europe enterned amelting pot (mix of cultures which leads to new one, new language)people are moving to west because they want to have farmsmanifest destiny– it was widely held belief of United States in the 19th century that settlers were destined to expend across North Americanew expressionsfrom Spanish (range, colt – male horse, lasso), from native American because of moving to West (cactus, buck, long time no see), from French (hotel)pidgen english– chinese word for trade, they were unable to learn english (so its mix ofchinese,mandarian and maybeportugese)canadian accent– its just differet, it contains of elements both British and American english also there is influence of French this is a product of several waves of imigration and sattlement (modern canadian english has taken significant vocabulary and spelling from the shared political and social institutions of Comonewalth countries)jamaican patois– they don’t use BE (was, were will be), don’t use ME (i), they use expression instead of standard words (this seems fishy still), there is discusion if its dialect or languagealtough British isles is relatively small archipelago there are various dialects the most striking difference is seen in Scottish English for example “Loch” wich means lake and “ken” being used for word knowaccent of British– received pronunciation, Queen´s or BBC English is spoken across the country and probably the most easily rocognized internationally – middle and upper classestuary englishits cockney and BBC can sound poshlondon multucultural english is BBC, cockney, Jamaican, Asianmost people in Britain speak with regional accent or dialectin Liverpool is a very different accent (Liverpudlian accent) which was strongly influenced by Irish immigrationYorkshire has some striking grammar diferrencesLondon itself has various accents, most famouslyCockney which originated in working class slums in East London – is rhymingIt´s influence is today far beyond its original area and many people subconsciously or consciously adopted Cockneythese people are reffered asMockney (imitation of cockney)due to multiculturalism many accents like Jamaican, Caribbean, Indian are spoken in London Australian English Australian English has vernecular and slang expressions which are quite distinctAustralian and New Zeland English are closely related to each other and share some similarities with the development of African EnglishThe vocabularies of these dialects draw from bothBritish English (in the main) andAmerican English(especially for recent terminilogy)there is some influence from Aboriginal languages in names of flora and faunaAustralian English is famous for itsdiminutives (kangaroo becomes roo, ambulance ambo, a can of beer tinnie and so onthere are several others varieties of English (Creole – mixing language in the new one, which is a mix of English and African languages, was used by slaves. Or Patois Jamaica) The Caribbean influenced of english based Creolethere is a great deal of variation in the way English is spoken with a “Standard English”these dialects have roots in 17th century British and Irish english, African language and localised influences from other colonial languages including French, Spanish, Dutch

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