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20) American Literature II. - Ernest Hemingway

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20. American literature II. - Ernest Hemingway LIFE  1899 - 1961  Purlitzle prize 1953  Nobel prize 1954  7 novels and 6 short stories collections  father = doctor, mother = music teacher (he played cello and hated the lessons)  he hated his name (because of The importance of being Earnest)  started writing at secondary school  WW1 o Volunteer  ambulance driver o 8.7.1918  wounded in mortar fire (minomet)  for helping the soldiers he got Italian silver medal for bravery  he spent six month in hospital (after the war still)  in love with nurse Agnes Kurowsky o failed => she left him  after return from hospital he became a journalist/freelance reporter in Toronto Star  1st wife Elizaberth Richards = rich, 8 years older, really pretty o together they went to Paris because of his job as a foreign correspondent for Toronto Star  Paris o met interesting people there  Gertrude Stein (founder of the lost generation = which he is a member of)  James Joyce (alcoholic sprees together)  Pablo Picasso  F.S. Fitzgerald (Great Gatsby = inspiration to write his 1st novel) o 1 st son  2nd wife Poline Pfeifer o she worked for Vogue o met in Paris o they had son together and they moved to the USA = Key West (Florida) o 1 st boat  Spanish war o reporter there  1939 o Sailed to Cuba => left his wife  3rd wife Martha Gelhorn o not rich o they lived on Cuba o he started like cats  WW2 o London war correspondent o met Mary Welsh o present at D-day  4th wife Mary Welsh  After WW2 o health problems  high blood pressure  diabetes  1954 o Victim of 2 planes crushes  1st sight seeing flight = plane fell down => injury of head  2nd next day transport to hospital => plane exploded  everybody thought he was dead but he was not => he was reading his obituaries (nekrology) (and he liked it)  since then o physical (painkillers and drinks = not helping too much) and psychological problems (thought FBI was following him) o 1961 attempt to commit suicide  Hodpital Mayo Clinic (electric shock treatment) o 2 days after leaving the hospital commited suicide (he had hemochromatosis = also his father, sister and brother had sommited suicide) STYLE  excellent narrator  short stories – iceberg theory (facts above water, supporting structure + symbols = under water  THEMES o war, love, loss o inspiration in his life  NOVELS o A Farewell to Arms o For Whom The Bell Tolls o The Old Man and The Sea The Old Man and The Sea  I tis about Old man named Santiago who never gives up fishing and he decides to go fishing for the last time for the biggest fish he ever have hunted. But when he finds the biggest fish he also finds sharks which eat up all the fish until he turns back to the port. But when the others fishmans see the skelet of the enormous fish he have hunted. They admire Santiago as the best fishman in history. It shows the power and devotion of Santiago to the fishing and his pride.

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