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21) Australia, New Zealand

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21. Australia, New Zealand AUSTRALIA  general information o Australia is a continent between the Indian and the Southern Pacific Ocean o It is the smallest continent in the world, but the world's sixth largest country o Much of the centre of Australia is flat, but there are some mountains of which Uluru (Ayers Rock) is the best known o 20 million inhabitants o Capital: Canberra  history o Aborigines were the original Australians o Different languages and cultures varied between the groups, depending on which part of the country they lived in o In 1606, European explorers discovered the huge island, but it wasn't until 1770, that British Captain James Cook made a scientific voyage to the South Pacific and mapped Australia - he was the first to claim the country for Britain o The British decided to use its new country as a penal colony, meaning they would keep prisoners there o Thousands of men and women were brought to Australia as prisoners o Unfortunately, the new settlers disrupted the lifestyle of the original habitants and many became sick from new illnesses and died o In 1901, the Commonwealth of Australia was founded and the six colonies (New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania) federated as sovereign states  political system o A federation in 1901 united the six states under a single constitution o It now is a federal constitutional monarchy that recognizes the British monarch represented by Governor - generral  flag o The Australian flag is dark blue, with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper left corner o The lower left corner contains a seven pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star. Each of the star's points represents one of the six sovereign states, and the seventh point represents all of the territories o The rest of the flag is a picture of the Southern Cross constellation, which can only be seen in the southern hemisphere. It has one small star and four larger ones. NEW ZEALAND  general information o New Zealand consists of two islands that are located south− east of Australia in the South Pacific o inhabitants – 4 million o capital – Wellington, largest city – Auckland  history o Original people – the Maori population o The first European to reach New Zealand was a Dutch sailor, Abel Tasman, in 1642. However, it was the British naval officer James Cook who really explored the country. o Great Britain took control of the South Island by right of discovery, and the North Island also became a British colony in 1840, when the Treaty of Waitangi was signed by the Maori northern chiefs o The Maori were promised protection. A few years later war broke out between the Maori and the British, as some Maori were not willing to sell their land to the newcomers and felt deceived by the Treaty o The Maori resistance was more or less crushed by 1870 o The effort to achieve independence from Britain culminated after WWII, and New Zealand became formally independent in 1947. It is still a member of the Commonwealth.  political system o same as in Australia  flag o is similar to Australia’s flag o New Zealand's flag has a royal blue background with a small flag of Great Britain, in the top-left corner o The four five-pointed red stars represent the Southern Cross star formation that is found in the Southern Hemisphere

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