5. The UK
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Anglický jazyk 5. The United Kingdom The full official name of the state is The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Norther Ireland. The UK is a country located on the British Isles between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, northwest of continental Europe. There are also smaller islands Hebrides, Orkneys Shetlands and Isle of Man. These islands are surrounded by Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, between there is Ireland Sea and English Channel. The UK is part of Europe but separated from France by English Channel. The population of the UK is over 60 million people. It is six times more than the CR. The UK is made up of 4 parts: Wales (Cardiff, St. David, daffodil), Scotland (Edinburgh, St. Andrew, thistle), England (London, St. George, red rose) and Northern Ireland (Belfast, St. Patrick, shamrock). London is the capital city of the UK and England and it is the biggest city. The main language spoken is English, but there are lots of regional dialects (accents) across the country. Gaelic is spoken in some areas of Scotland, and Welsh is the second language spoken in Welsh. The climate is mild, summers are not very hot and winters are not very cold which is caused by the warm Gulf Stream. The weather in Britain is changeable. Now, I would like to speak about the surface of the country. The Pennines are called the backbone of England. They occupy the central part of northern England. The longest river is the River Severn, flowing through Wales and England. The second longest is the River Thames, flowing through London. It is constitutional monarchy. A constitutional monarchy is a democracy where the king or queen is the official head of state, but the parliament has real power. Queen can’t cote but she has a ceremonial role in the UK government. She opens Parliament every year and having weekly meetings with Prime Minister. Her other duties include taking diplomatic trips, meeting other heads of state, giving awards to citizen, hosting parties and doing charitable work. The head of country is Queen Elizabeth II. She is represent by Prime Minister Theresa May. The seat of Prime Minister is Downing Street no. 10 in London. Governor consists of 3 branches, Legislative, Executive and Judiciary. The parliament has two houses, The House of Lords and The House of Commons. The seat of the parliament is the Palace of Westminster known as The Houses of Parliament. There are two political parties: the Conservative Party (right wing) and the Labour Party (left wing). The national currency is British pound. Big cities are Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Newcastle and Liverpool (where the Beatles were born). Scotland is a mountainous country famous for its lochs. The largest lake is Loch Lomond and the most famous lake is Loch Ness because of the Loch Ness Monster. There are popular ski resorts in the Scottish Highlands and tourist can climb the highest peak of the UK there, Ben Nevis. Popular Highlands Games are held each year to celebrate Scottish culture with bagpipes and dancing. Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland. It is dominated by Edinburgh Castle and Hollyroodhouse, which is the Queens official residence in Scotland. Wales is also a mountainous country. Snowdonia is a national park with the highest peak Snowdon. Cardiff is the capital city where you can visit the medieval Cardiff Castle and a large Millennium Stadium. Belfast is the capital city of Northern Ireland. The Titanic was built in Belfast. The Giant’s Causeway is an usual geological feature, which consists of over 40.000 basalt columns and which was formed as lava an ancient volcano cooled down. A legend says that it was built by a giant to cross the sea to Scotland. Famous British personality is Queen Victoria. She became Queen at the age of eighteen and is one of the longest reigning English monarchs. With her husband Prince Albert had a nine children. During her reign the country became a large empire (it included Canada, Australia, India, NZ and large parts of Africa). BBC is largest masmedia in the world. It means British Broadcasting Corporation. Other famous personality is Sir Isaac Newton. He was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer. He formulated the theory of gravitation and the three laws of motion.