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8. Environment

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PollutionClimate change, the weather changesGlobal warmingCarbon footprint (uhlíková stopa)Endangered species (ohrožené druhy)DeforestationOzone layerAcid rainFactories TrafficHow can we help? 8)Environment For millions of years, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere and the biosphere have been in balance on the Earth. These four parts make up what we call the Earth's environment. ATMOSPHERE - all the gases (plyny) that make up the air, the greenhouse gases (skleníkové plyny) and the ozone layer (ozónová vrstva).LITHOSPHERE - all the rocks in and on the Earth.HYDROSPHERE - all the water in the seas, rivers, lakes and soils (půdy).BIOSPHERE - all the living organisms on the Earth. 'Organisms' include viruses and bacteria, plants and animals (including humans). Four million years ago, humans first walked on the Earth's surface (povrch). We have a highly developed brain. We learn quickly and can plan for the future. We soon began to change the balance of the environment. The number of people on the Earth is growing each year making our environmental problems worse. The main ones are: Global warming, The ozone hole, Cutting down the rainforests – deforestation, Toxic pollution , Acid rain Global warming: The earth has a thin atmosphere that is like a transparent blanket that keeps us warm. In a process called the greenhouse effect high energy radiation from the solar system is trapped by gases such as carbon dioxide. This heat energy keeps Earth temperatures too high to support life. More carbon dioxide means a larger greenhouse effect so the Earth's overall temperature is increasing. The ozone hole: Scientists discovered that the ozone layer in the atmosphere over the Antarctic was missing. In other populated places such as Australia it was very thin. The ozone layer absorbs dangerous ultra violet (UV) radiation. This happens mainly thanks to the ozone damaging chemicals in industrial. UV causes damage to the DNA of cells and cancer. Cutting down the rainforests – deforestation: Tropical rain forests are being burnt and cut down because people need more land for agriculture. This is happening in the Amazon basin (povodí) in Brazil and Asia. This causes that many plants and animals will become extinct. Toxic pollution (znečištění): We produce lots of waste in the home and toxic chemicals from industrial processes. Main reason why we dump waste into rivers or holes in the ground is that it is less expensive. Unfortunately, toxic waste kills fish in rivers, lakes and the sea. It is also getting into our drinking water or food. Acid rain Today rain contains harmful acid (škodlivá kyselina) which can damage the environment. Solution: We can change the way we produce energy or ban the use of dangerous chemicals and also find alternative sources for wood.

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