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22.MO – London Osnova: 1. history 2. cultural life 3. the Royal family 4. sightseeing 5. famous poeple History – Romans – Anglossaxons – Middle ages – Tudors – Stuarts – Victorians – Gregorians – 20th centuryCultural lifeThe Royal family – Vicotrie – další významní – současnostSightseeing – památkyFamous people Capital city of England, biggest city in EuropeStanding on river ThamesAround 620 square miles HISTORY: Romans43AD – founded by Romans – port LondiniumCapital city to 410Anglosaxons and VikingsDuring the 8. century capital of kingdom EssexDuring the 9. century Viking attacks main seat of VikingsThe Middle ages1066AD won William Conqueror at Hasting Normans dynasty1078 Tower was built1348-50 hard times – black death (around half of inhabitants died)Tudors1485 Henry VII started to reign London´sblossoming (rozkvět)Growth of trade, new ports1558 Elizabeth I. – last monarch of the house of Tudors, 45 year reign, Virgin Queen (never get married), London was wealthy and successful cityGlobe theatre (Shakespeare)StuartsNot so successful (Catholics X Protestants)Rule of Oliver Cromwell (Lord protector)1666 great fire of London destroyed majority of the wooden city rebuiltVictorians1837 Victoria become Queen at age 18Victorian eraFast grew of London – centre of world trade and had a large, powerful EmpireHouse of Parliament was built after fireFirst underground (The Tube) openedGregoriansBiggest growth1 million inhabitants biggest European city20th century1st world war – London was bombarded2nd world war – bombarded by GermansElizabeth II. started to rule 1952 CULTURAL LIFE: Diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the regionCentre of different cultural events and touristic spots3 cultural icons – red telephone boxes, Big ben, double-decker buses150 theatres (Globe)857 galleries170 museumsThree out of the ten largest and most popular museums in the worldThree UNESCO protected objects (Tower, Maritime Greenwich, Westminster palace with Westminster Abbey, St. Margaret´s church and the Royal Botanic gardens)Festivals (music, fashion, design, film, …), carnivals, more than 17000 music events per yearMany films filmed there: The Shining (Nicholson), My fair lady (Hepburn), Harry PotterNightlife – clubs, pubs, music venuesMany professional sports teamsSummer Olympic games (1908, 1948, 2012)Very popular: football, rugby, cricketTravel: buses, taxis, tube (underground), ships THE ROYAL FAMILY: Surrname is Wisdor Members: The Queen Elizabeth II. – 21. April 1926, married to Prince Philip – Duke of Edinburg, constitutioal monarch official head of state, queen of 16 former British colonies, head of commonwealth, ascended the throne at 1952, coronated at Westminster Abbey at 1953, royal seat is Buckingham palace (since 1837, first was Victoria)The Prince of Wales – Prince Charles, Queen´s eldest son, first wife Diana Spencer (divorced died in carcrash), second wife Camilla Parker-Bowles (Duchess of Cornwall)The Princess royal – Princess Anne, Queen´s daughterPrince William of Wales – Charles´s eldest son, married with Kate Middleton – he met her on university, 2 childrenPrince Harry of Wales – Charles´s younger son, married actress Meghan MarkleThe Duke of York – Prince Andrew, second son of ElizabethThe Earl of Wessex – Prince Edward, Queen´s youngest son, wife Countess of WessexThe Duke and Duches of GloucesterThe Duke and Duches of KentThe Prince and Princess Michael of KentThe Princess Alexandra SIGHTSEEING: Many other places of interest in London (first was Buckingham palace) For example: Palace of Westminster– seat of Parliament of United Kingdom, in central London, famous Elizabeth Tower – many people thinks that i tis Big Ben but i tis only the bell, renovation to 2021 The Tower of London– historical castle in central London, built by William Conqueror in 1078, oldest part is White Tower, guard are Beefeaters, crown jewels now there, it was prison, palace, armoury and fortress, legend about ravens which protect the crown and tower Tower Bridge– combinated bascule and suspension bridge, opened at 1894 London Eye– opened 2000, Europe´s tallest Ferris wheel (135m tall structure), pieces of construction from Czech Rep. Hyde Park– largest of four royal parks, famous spot is speakers corner Westminster Abbey– gothic church, place of coronation and burial site for English, later British monarchs, also royal weddings (Elizabeth and Philip, William and Kate), Burial (Newton, Darwin, Hawking) The Globe Theater– original built 1599, coowner was Shakespeare, his games, 17th century destroyed, 1997 Shakespear´s Globe was opened, games played over the day and when weather is good St. Paul´s cathedral – seat of bishop, renovations after big fire made Christopher Wren, Diana with Charles had wedding here MOST FAMOUS PEOPLE BORN IN LONDON: Charlie Chaplin – Actor and filmmaker of the silent era.Alfred Hitchcock – Film director and producerElizabeth Taylor – film starActress: Kiera Knightley, Emily BluntKate Moss - model