8b History of GB II.
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History of GB II. Tudors 1215 Magna Charta → parliament John the Lackland for money 1485 – 1603: Henry VIII. 6 wifes he wanted to divorce with his 1st wife Catherine of Aragon, but the Pope refused – she couldn’t have kids 1534 reformation: he abolished Catholic Church, took all their money, founded English Church – made himself the head → granted himself the divorce Elizabeth I. (death 1603) called virgin queen (because she had no kids and no husband) Low taxes, so people were happy Hired pirates to fight against France, Spain → won Pirates were honoured in England Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh (Virginia) Defeated Spanish Armada (trick with burning ships) → England became the greatest Navy power #1 sea power English throne→ James I. (in Scotland James VI.) – cousin son from Mary the Queen of Scotland England x Scotland Religion protestants catholic System capitalism feudalism → people weren't Rule(r) parliament absolute monarchy happy because of bourgeosie monarchy landed aristocracy these differences James I. death → Charles I. The Civil War 1640 –1649 Parliament x King merchants church of England south north Roundheads fight Cavaliers Roundhead Presbyterians Compromise (Oliver Cromwell) Leader Oliver Cromwell (Puritans) reorganised the army Ranks awarded according to experience and not birth 1649 Oliver won Charles I. beheaded (coin) The Commonwealth 1649-1660 Oliver Cromwell Military dictator (he was fighting for parliament and after he won he abolished parliament) Became Lord Protector End of parliament and king People – didn’t like it Cromwell death 1658 → Commonwealth was collapsing 1660 – Restoration of monarchy Invited king Charles II. – king back Limited his power → king depends on parliament Parliament (2 political crews) Tories (landed aristocracy) – support king Whigs (bour merchants) 1686-1689 The Glorious Revolution without death of people Charles II. death New king James II. He restore – catholicism and he wanted to rule without parliament = absolute monarchy Parliament said NO and James II. escaped → William of Orange William of Orange proclaimed English king (James daughter – his wife) 1689 Bill of Rights King power limited, signed by Will of Orange Parliament strengthened No changes yet 1701 – Act of Settlement King always protestant