American History II.
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American history II. WWI – WORLD WAR ONE - the first world war - 1914 – 1918 (11th November) - USA at first just financing the war - 1917 USA entered the war (116 000 killed, 83 000 KIA) - League of Nations (UN + OSN) USA foundersUSA not activePolicy of Isolation = problems of Europe should be solved by Europeimmigration was limited for the first timeprohibition of alcohol => gangster (Chicago) - after WWI: world financing centre moved from London –> NY (Wall Street)- 1929 Great Crash on Wall Street = BLACK FRIDAY (many people lost their money and savings, deepest crisis) => Great Depression1932 new president Franklin Delano Roosevelt (democrat)his plan: - New Deal = first intervention into US economy - subsidies (support) - farmers could sell their surpluses to the government - old age + disability pensions unemployment 17 mil –> 8 milRoosevelt popular – the only US president elected 4 times, served 3 terms WW2 – WORLD WAR SECOND - 1st September 1939 – 1945 (8th May Europe/ 2nd September Japan) - at first USA financing - 7th December 1941 Pearl Harbour - US military port - attacked by the Japanese - USA lucky aircraft carriers outside USA x Japanese - in the Pacific - USA at first losing - 1942 Battle at Midway USA won on the seaJapan lost 3 aircraft carriers - 1943 Guadalcanal USA won on land1944 Kamikadze pilots - Japan still refused to give up - 2 nuclear bomb 6th August – Hirošima9th August – Nagasaki - Japan surrendered September 1945 Europe - Operation Overlord 6th June the D – Day: invasion into Normandy –> successfulallies in France - war in Europe goes to its end on 8th May 1945 (Berlin) - USA loses 400 000 people (300 000 KIA) - Europe divided –> Cold war (USA x Soviet Union) Marshal Plan 1948 – 1952 to rebuild Europe investments + factories KOREAN WAR - 1950 – 1953 - Korea divided after WW2 38th parallel - North Korea attacked at first losingthen UN troop joinedvery close to Chinese borders –> China entered the war –> pushed USA back to 38th paralel - not peace but ceasefire VIETNAM WAR - 1954 – 1975 - North (communists) –> China + USSR - South –> USA + Australia - 1965 first active combat troops => not successful - 1973 withdraw => loses 200 000 – 250 000 US President TruemanDwight Eisenhower(53 – 60) - WW2 general - 1st contacts USA – USSR Kennedy (61 – 63) - 1962: Cuban crisis - shot in Dallas (by Henry Lee Oswald) Ronald Reagan - Hollywood Actor - SDI - VAT – introduced Value Added Tax