Great Britain – geography, weather, climate, population, places of interest
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7 GB – geography, weather, climate, population, places of interest a) GB Geography: - the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland covers an area of about 244 km2. - it lies between 50° North and 60° North latitude1 and meridian2 of 0° goes through it - is about 1000 km from South to North and 500 from West to East - the largest isles are Great Britain and Ireland - the other islands:Isle of Wight– off3 the southern coast Isle of Scilly– off the south-west Anglesey– off North Wales Isle of Man – in the Irish see The Hebrides – near western Scotland Orkney and Shetland– far north Channel Islands– near French coast - the highest mountains:Ben Nevis– in Scotland Snowdon– North Wales - Great Britain can be divided into lowland4 area and highland5 area - lowland includes midland, southern and eastern England - highland includes Scotland, most of Wales (upland Pennines), and Lake District - the longest rivers:-Severn– England -Themes – England -Clyde– Scotland - the known lakes:-Loch LomondandLoch Nessin Scotland -Lake Windermere Weather and climate: - Britain has a temperate6 and equable7 climate - the prevailing8 winds are south-westerly and the weather is influenced by Atlatic - in the winter there is cold, dry continental type of weather - the average difference between temperatures in winter and summer is biggest in inland - the summer lasts from June to September and the temperature is hovering9 around 20 degrees - at any time the weather in cloudy and rainy - The lowest temperatures in winter aren’t lower than –7°C - the average rain-fall10 is about 900 mm Vegetation: - the woodlands occupy about 8 % of the surface - most of the Britain is agricultural11 land – 1/3 is arable12 and the rest pasture and meadows 13 - the elaborate land drainage14 system have been developed to cultivate the fenland15 Population: - population of 58 million people - various origins, separate traditions between England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland - they have different religion, legal system, education and language - the composition of the people:80 % English 10 % Scottish 2 % Welsh 3 % Irish 2 % Ulster 3 % other Places of interests: Cliffs16 of Dover - white chalk17 which can be seen when coming to England - there is also Dover Castle near Stratford-upon-Avon- the second most visited city in England - it was founded18 by Richard I and it is known as a birthplace of William Shakespeare - the grave of Shakespeare is in Holy Trinity Church - there also Royal Shakespeare theatre there Kenilworth- it was Norman castle which became a royal residence - now it is the most extensive19 castle ruins in England - Walter Scott wrote here one his novel Warwick- it was founded in 10th century and extended in 14th century - now it’s a museum Oxford- seat of the oldest English university – 34 colleges now - there is a lot of academic buildings Cambridge- from roman times - the second oldest English university Canterbury- seat of a archbishop - there is magnificent20 cathedral from 11th century - first convent21 was established here York- the seat of a archbishop of the Anglican Church - there is superb22 Gothic cathedral called York Minster Winchester- originally the roman town a later the capital of Wessex in Anglo-Saxon times - there is Winchester Cathedral from the 7th century – rebuilt in 12th century Hastings- seaside resort on the east coast - near this place there was a battle field (William against Edward) Stonehenge -a huge circle of standing stones. It was built probably in 2000 BC near Salisbury. the purpose of it isn’t known, but it could be an astronomical church or a place for people to say their prays to God Hadrian’s wall- part of a roman fortification23 against Celts - it is 185 long Edinburg- it is the capital of Scotland – industrial and cultural center - the oldest building there is the Castle from 12th century which stands on the hill - Walter Scott was born here Loch Ness- most famous lake - 36 km long and 229 deep - there were some rumors about Loch Ness monster since 15th century ) šířka ) poledník ) poblíž ) nížina ) vysočina ) umírnění ) vyrovnaný ) převládat, existovat ) balancovat ) srážky ) zemědělský ) orná ) vypracovaný ) odvodňovat ) mokřiny ) útes ) křída )založit ) rozsáhlý ) skvělý, nádherný ) klášter ) skvostý, skvělý ) opevnění