Important People in the British History
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Maturitní otázka: Important People in the British History
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE BRITISH HISTORY QUEEN ELIZABETH II. 1926 – today - the queen of the UK, Australia, New Zealand since 1952 - daughter of the Duke and the Duchess of York - began to undertake public duties during the Second World War - married Prince Philip – the Duke of Edinburgh - educated at home by her mother and governess – history, language, literature, music - the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch - the world´s longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state MARGARETH THATCHER 1925 – 2013 - British stateswoman, the Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990, Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990 - the longest serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century - the first woman to have been appointed - a Soviet nickname – the „Iron Lady“ – because of her uncompromising politics, leadership style - her policies – known as Thatcherism - good student – studied chemistry at Oxford – became Chemistry Bachelor of Science - decided not to be chemists – thought about laws or politics ADMIRAL NELSON (Horatio Nelson) 1758 – 1805 - British flag officer in the Royal Navy - inspirational leadership, superb grasp of strategy, unconventional tactics – particularly during the Napoleonic Wars - shot and killed during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar Square - entered the navy in the age of 12 – soon became the midshipman QUEEN VICTORIA 1819 – 1901 - queen of the UK of Great Britain and Ireland from 1837 until her death; the Empress of India - attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments – national icon of standards and personal morality - „the grandmother of Europe“ – nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent - the „Victorian era“ – industrial, cultural, political, scientific and military change; great expansion of the British Empire WINSTON CHURCHILL 1874 – 1965 - British statesman, army officer, writer; Prime Minister of the UK from 1951 to 1955 and from 1951 to 1955 - led Britain to victory during the Second World War - joined the British Army – saw action in British India, Anglo-Sudan War – war correspondent, writing books about his campaigns - famous speeches and radio broadcasts – helped inspire British resistance during the Second World War WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR (William I.) 1028 – 1087 - the first Norman King of England after the Battle of Hastings – he beated the Anglo-Saxon king Harold II. - he was a contender for the throne, but there was another claimant – including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson HENRY VIII. 1491 – 1547 - the second Tudor monarch - six marriages, effords to have his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled - diagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment – the English Reformation – separating the Church of England from papal authority – appointing himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England - radical changes to the English Constitution