The Glorious Revolution
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The Glorious Revolution The Causes of Civil War Bad relationship betweenCharles I and theParliament Ireland exploded in rebellion against the Protestant English + Scottish settlersCharles I(Stuart) Quarrelled withParliament so badly, that hedissolved it Heonly recalled it, when heneeded money Did not like Puritans (Protestants) and had married a French Catholic Asked for Parliament’s help to put together an army, that’d face the Scottish rebels In return for this, he had to agree, that the Parliament will meet once every 3 years This made him dependent on the Parliament Lost the Civil War against the Parliament The only EnglishKing to be executedThe Civil War (1641 – 1645) London locked its gates againstCharles I – he moved to Nottingham, where he formed an army to fight the MPs who opposed him The Royalists Controllednorth + west Thearmy was unpaid = ran away, robbed, eventually lost their courage The Parliament Controlledeast + southeast including London “Roundheads” = parliamentarian soldiers Royalistarmy wasdefeated at Naseby (1645)Oliver Cromwell One of thecommanders of the Parliamentarian Army, terriblypuritan Formed a verysevere government = England is a republic Thearmy = the most powerful force in the country Dissolved the Parliament Became “Lord Protector”, veryunpopular He forbade people from celebrating Christmas and Easter, ruled through his army Sent manyIrish children to work as slaves in India = most of them died After he died, his son was a poor leader = the republic was overCharles II(Stuart) was invited to return = England is amonarchy again First political parties were formed: The Whigs (parliament.) and the Tories (royalists)James II (catholic)Mary II([Stuart] +William II[Orange ]) Married the protestant ruler of Holland:William the Orange William invaded England (as a wish of the Parliament) but the crown was offered to Mary only William would leave, unless he was made a king as well – Parliament did soThe Glorious Revolution William + Parliament overthrew James II and made William king: William II Revolutionary was, thatWilliam was king not by inheritance, but by choice Led to the restrictions of Catholic’s rightsThe Bill of Rights Anact of the Parliament Restricted king’s authority and power: He couldn’t raise taxes Couldn’t keep army without parliaments agreementFamous aspects of Stuart period Charles I was apassionate art collector – he owned over 1000 art pieces Charles I was theonly English king to be beheaded The Stuarts were wayless successful than the Tudors