5. Theatre, film industry
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5. Theatre and film industry ACTING TERMS ARTICULATION: The clarity with which you speak. To speak with proper articulation is to speak clearly, pronouncing letters and words properly so the audience can understand you. BLOCKING: An actor's movement and stage positions during a performance. CHARACTER: A person, creature, or entity in a story or play with specific and distinguishing attributes. CHARACTERIZATION: The process of creating a believable character by exploring the character's physical, social, and psychological aspects of the role. CHEAT OUT: When an actor turns his body to face downstage in order to be more open to the audience, even if it wouldn't be natural for him to do so in another context. CROSS: An actor's movement from one part of the stage to another. CUE: For actors, the part of a script or show immediately before an actor's line or action that signals the actor to proceed (i.e. entering, saying a line, answering a phone, etc.) CURTAIN CALL: The cast bow at the end of a show. DICTION: The quality or style of speaking an actor uses to demonstrate his character. It includes elements such as accent, enunciation, and inflection. EMOTIONAL MEMORY/RECALL: An acting technique in which the actor calls upon his own past experiences to use the emotion felt in those times and transfer them to his character. IMPROVISATION: Acting done spontaneously and without a script; everything is made up on the spot. Often used in rehearsals to strengthen understanding of character. MOTIVATION: What drives a character (and the actor portraying him) to act. One stereotype of actors has them asking "But what's my motivation?" OBJECTIVE: A character's goal. The reason a character does and says what he does and says. PACING: The rate at which a scene is played. PANTOMIME: Telling a story or creating a character using movement, gestures, and facial expressions without talking. POSTURE: The way an actor stands, sits, and generally holds himself. Posture can do a lot to physically create a character. PROJECTION: The volume at which you speak. If a director tells an actor to project, that actor is not being loud enough vocally to fill the space. AUDITION AND REHEARSAL TERMS AUDITION: A competitive try-out for a role in a play. A chance for actors to show directors their capabilities in hope of being cast. CALL: The time one is expected to be present and ready for a rehearsal or performance. CALLBACK: A second audition; directors will bring back certain individuals from a first audition to consider them further. COLD READING: A reading of the script done without looking at or studying that script in advance. Sometimes used at auditions. CRITIQUE: Feedback given over what was done well and and what was done wrong in a performance or rehearsal. DRESS REHEARSALS: The final rehearsals done for a show; these rehearsals are done in full costume and make-up. OFF BOOK: Another word for memorized. A rehearsal off book will be one in which the actors do not use scripts. PLACES: The positions for all actors and crew at the beginning of a play. REHEARSAL: A practice for a play. RUN-THROUGH: A type of rehearsal that goes through the entire play, or a full act, as opposed to specific moments or characterizations. SCRIPT TERMS ANTAGONIST: A character who acts in opposition to the main character, or protagonist. Often the 'bad guy' of the play. COMEDY: A humorous play. Traditionally, comedies ended in marriage, which implied birth and new life, as opposed to a tragedy, which ended in death. CONFLICT: A situation that arises when the objectives of two or more characters or forces are at odds. Good plays and stories are built on conflict. DIALOGUE: Written conversation between two or more characters. DRAMATIC STRUCTURE: The structure of a play. This form was established based on classic Greek and Roman theatre; not all modern stories fit into this structure. EXPOSITION:This establishes the setting and characters of the play. INITIAL/INCITING INCIDENT:The moment that introduces the primary conflict of the story. RISING ACTION:The build in the action between the inciting incident and the climax. Most modern plays are made primarily of rising action. CLIMAX: The moment of highest tension in a play. The moment in a play when the protagonist makes a decision that makes the end of the story inevitable. FALLING ACTION:The part of the play which follows the climax. In modern stories, the falling action is frequently quite brief. DENOUMENT: The end of the play, when conflicts are resolved and the ultimate fates of characters are revealed. Generally, comedies leave their protagonists in better situations than the ones they started in, while protagonists in tragedies are usually worse off. FARCE: A type of comedy that seeks to entertain its audiences through a series of extravagant and improbable situations. GENRE: The style of the play. Genre can be as broad as 'comedy' or 'tragedy' or as narrow and specific as 'courtroom drama' or 'burlesque'. MELODRAMA: A style of theatre primarily popular in the 18th and 19th centuries. Characterized by exaggerated plotting and characters, 'melodramatic' has come to mean an over-the-top style. MONOLOGUE: A speech given by one character to other characters. Monologues are frequently used as audition pieces. MUSICAL: A play using musical accompaniment and sung music to tell its story. PLOT: The events of a play, from its beginning to end. PROTAGONIST: The primary character in a play. Often considered the "good guy." SATIRE: A story or play which uses humor to make strong statements about individuals, policies, or society as a whole. SCRIPT: A printed copy of the dialogue and instructions of a play. SOLILOQUY: A speech given by a single character to himself to express his thoughts for the benefit of the audience, as opposed to a monologue given for the benefit of other characters. SUBTEXT: The underlying emotion, thoughts, and meanings underneath what is said by the characters in a play. TEXT: