03 Australia and New Zealand
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03 Australia and New Zealand AUSTRALIA HISTORY Aboriginals – maori and moriori – pantheismdiscovered by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 16061770 James Cook started mappingbecame colony of England – penal colony = to exile prisoners19th century – Gold Rush – poeple came and started taking things from natives, who didn’t understand the meaning of possessionAboriginal genocide – reservations were made for their protection SYMBOLS Anthem God save the Queen Advance Australia FairFlag: blue field with UK flag + Commonwealth Star = seven-pointed star + Southern Cross Constellation (5 stars)Capital city: CanberraCurrency: Australian DollarLanguage: EnglishNickname: AussieSymbols: boomerang, didgeridoo, Sydney Opera House, Uluru, koala, kangarooActors: Hugh Jackman, Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanchett POLITICAL MAP the only continent, that is also a countryno land bordersW – Indian Ocean; N – Timor Sea, Arafura Sea, E – Coral Sea, South Pacific Ocean, S – Tasman Sea, Southern OceanWestern Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland, South Wales, Victoria, TasmaniaPopulation – 24 milEthnicity 36 % British 35 % Australian – colony, aboriginesReligion 61 % Christian 22 % non-religious POLITICAL SYSTEM federal parliamentary constitutional monarchyHead of State – Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor-General GG appointed by the monarch on recommendations of government ministers GG is commander-in-chief of the Australian Defence Force can appoint ministers, judges, ambassadors since 1 July 2019 – David HurleyLegislative = Parliament + governor general bicameral – Senate + House of Representatives Commonwealth Parliament or Federal Parliament Infulenced by the Westminster system House of Representatives 151 members voted for flexible term of office (not more than 3 years) Senate 76 members elected for flexible term of office (not more than 6 years)Executive Federal Executive Council – gives legal effect to the decisions of cabinet Cabinet – Prime minister (changes all the time) + ministers of state (they advise the GG)Juduciary the High Court of Australia judges appointed by gornor-general on advice of the FECConstitution – Constitution of Australia – one of world’s oldest writtenfederation – power is divided between the federal government and the states and territoriestwo-party system – Australian Labour Party and Coalition (Liberal Party and National Party)voting is compulsory! GEOGRAPHY Capital: Canberralocated in Oceania between Indian and South Pacific Oceansmostly deserts Great Victoria Desert – biggest Great Sandy Desert Simpson Desert Gibson DesertMountain ranges Macdonnell RAnges Great Dividing Range – east coastHighest peak Mount Kosciuszko 2228 mRivers not many – deserts Murray – 2508 km Darling – 1472 kmLakes Lake Eyre – biggest Lake Gairdner Lake Hilier – pink Lake DisappointmentCoral Reefs Great Barrier Reef – world’s largest CLIMATE mostly arid or semiarid, south and east are temperate and the north is tropicalextensive droughts, tropical cyclones, heat waves, bushfiresoccasional dust strom or tornado ANIMALS marsupials– pouch with joeykangaroos – hop, all the time pregnantKoala – eats only eukalyptus leaves, sleeping all the time, agressiveplatypus – monotreme, duck + beaver, venomousEchidna – monotremeEmuDingo – marsupialwater buffalorabbit – pest – destroying the countrywhite sharks, crocodilewombats – produces cube poop, marsupial NATURAL RESOURCES world leader in miningcoal, gold, copper, iron, nickel, uraniumagriculture – wheat, rice, oilseeds, cotton, fruits, tobacco, sheepindustry – mining, aerospace ECONOMY affected by Gold Rush and agriculturesteady economic growth – highes living standardnot affected by crisescore? mineral resources, agriculture, sheep, meat, dairy, wine (for export)UN, WHO, OECD, UNESCO TOURISM Sydney Opera house – passing sailsGreat Barrier Reef – coast of cat’s ears, coral bleaching – global warmingKakadu national Park – wildernessUluru-Kaka-Tjuta – red rocksFraser Island – sandy islandpoisonous tree – you cut it = sprays poison, you burn it – poisonous gasWhy people go there adventure, different way of life backpacking, diving, surfing! outback – area not populated, desertmost dangerous: box jellyfish, shars, crocodiles, snakes, spiders NEW ZEALAND lies between Tasman Sea and South Pacific OceanSouth Island and North Island SYMBOLS flag: reminds of AUS flag southern cross + union jackanthem: God defend New ZealandCapital: WellingtonCurrency New Zealand DollarOfficial language English MaoriSymbols kiwi = flightless bird, formerely size of ostrich – shrinked, still big egg, symbol of air force, new bird can live on its own – doesn’t need care Koru = shape of circle – represents creation Silver Fern – grown Koru (kapradí), national symbol – badge of honour, valor All Blacks – rugby team – known for performing Haka dance – Maori tradition, mimicking before hunt DEMOGRAPHICS 4,5 millionhiring farmers, they give you everything for freemostly British 74%, 15% Maori, 12% Asian, 7% Pacific peoples (islands sink)religion – European influence (48% Christian, 39% non religious) HISTORY settled at last – eastern polynesias in 13th centurymaori and moriorI POLITICAL SYSTEM head Q Elizabeth IIexecutive – prime minister – head of Cabinetmonocameral legislative – House of Representativesnon-written constitutionpolitical parties: National + Labour ECONOMY 19th century – immigrants struggles with Maorisealing, whaling, gold, kauri gum, native timber – agriculture, hunting1970 – energetic crisis (World energetic crisis)one of the places with high level livingcore of economy agriculture, sheep + wool, dairy products, wine – in big amounts CITIES capital: WellingtonAuckland – biggestChristchurch – almost destroyed during earthquakepeople live around the country side PHYSICAL FEATURES originally Zealandia – sank – animals drowned, then started going up – whole = size of AUSstarted anew – birds flew there – only animalsclimate: oceanicmountains – high in the midd