The Tudor Dynasty
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The Tudor Dynasty The century of Tudor rule – the most glorious period in English history, because: Henry VII: made England apowerful monarchy and awealthy state Henry VIII: kept amagnificent court and madeChurch of England 100% English Elizabeth I:defeated the navy of Spain – then the most powerful in Europe The literacy increased + the living standards got better Renaissance time The Church of England Henry VIII became head of it – couldn’t control it + wanted to divorce Catherine of Ar. Elizabeth I kept it under her authority – made itpart of the state machine Colonies Virginia in America was founded Slaves from Africa became a profitable trade The East India company – to trade with India Foreign policy Henry VII remained friendly with neighbouring countries Mary I. allied England to Spain by her marriage to King Phillip the Spanish Elizabeth encouraged themerchant Expansion + defeated the Spanish navy Henry VII Veryimportant and good king – established the new dynasty Based royal power ongood business sense Wanted to make theCrown financially independent Put taxes on wars, which he didn’t fight Never spent money frivolously Understood, thatEngland’s wealth would depend oninternational trade - built ships Henry VIII. Son of the first Tudor king – Henry VII – but was unlike him Cruel, wasteful Kept amagnificent court Broke away from the Roman Catholic church by becoming the head of the Church of England Hedisliked the power of the Church of England – he couldn’t fully control it Wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragorn (who didn’t give him a son), but the pope didn’t allow it Henryforced the bishops to make him the head of the Church of England Closed numbers of monasteries (sold the land to landowners) Only loved1 of his 6 wives – Jane Seymour, who died giving birth to his only son Had3 children: Elizabeth, Mary and Edward Edward VI Too young to rule, when Henry VIII died –Council ruled on his behalf Died aged 16 – his sister to rule Mary I (Bloody Mary) Wascatholic – popular shortly from the beginning, then not anymore MarriedKing Phillip of Spain (unpopular) Burned protestants – 300 people were killed Died young – her sister to rule Elizabeth I (theVirgin Queen) Wanted to find apeaceful solution for the English Reformation Made theChurch apart of the Crown Village =parish (an area served by one Church) People had to go to church by law, otherwise fined Was endangered by:Spain and France (catholic),the pope (catholic) and theEnglish Catholic nobles (who wanted to replace Elizabeth with the catholic Mary of Scottland) Mary, the Queen of Scotland was unpopular at home andfled to England Elizabeth imprisoned Mary for 20 years and thenexecuted her Defeated the Spanish navy (the most powerful in Europe then)