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THE USA, ITS GEOGRAPHY, POLITICAL SYSTEM, INTERESTING FACTS The United States of America is the third/fourth largest country in the world (by total area – land and water). It has more than 300 000 000 citizens. The capital city of the USA is Washington DC. Other major cities are for example New York, which is the most inhabited city, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Miami, Atlanta or Dallas. The USA is divided into 50 states and 1 district. Originally there were 13 colonies. The territory of the USA borders with three oceans – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The continental USA borders with Canada (border crosses the Great Lakes following the St. Lawrence river) and Mexico (border follows Rio Grande river). Alaska, separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state. The country’s land surface is extremely varied. In the east we can find lowlands and flatlands, but also some mountain ranges such as the Appalachians. Approximately in the central part, there are Great Plains – flat land covered in prairie, steppe and grassland. In the western part we can find Rocky Mountains, largest mountain range. Sierra Nevada – another mountain range – runs close to Pacific Ocean. Farther west we can find Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and Mojave. The highest mountain of the USA is Mt. McKinley (6194m) and it is situated in Alaska. The mountain is nowadays called Denali. In the west there are relatively few rivers (for example Colorado river, which is remarkable for its canyons. The most famous canyon is The Grand Canyon.) The largest river is the Mississippi River. The Great Lakes are situated in the north and consist of Lake Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Climate conditions differ greatly, due to the large territorial extent of the USA. Some parts are in the temperate zone, the south lies in subtropical zone and in Alaska we can find the arctic climate. Hawaii and Florida have tropical climate. Extreme weather is common—the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico suffer from hurricanes. Most of the world's tornadoes occur within the country, mainly in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South. In USA we can find many various animal and plant species. The bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States. It is simply national emblem. Another national emblem is of course flag. It consists of 13 stripes in red and white colours that symbolise the original 13 colonies. In the upper left corner, we can find blue square with 50 stars. Melody of the US anthem is worldwide known. Its name is “THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER”. The national language is de facto English, although there is no official language at the federal level. There are some differences between American and British English, mostly in pronunciation. For example, in Hawaii are both Hawaiian and English official languages. The USA Is federal constitutional republic. It consists of 50 states, 1 federal district (Washington DC) and some territories made up mostly of islands in Pacific Ocean. U.S. Constitution serves as the country's supreme legal document. There are three major branches of power – the Executive branch (President), the Legislative branch (Congress) and the Judicial branch (Supreme Court). Head of the state is president elected for a four-year term. The traditional residence of the president is the White House in Washington. He appoints some members of the government and he can veto legislative bills before they become law. President is also holder of the highest executive power and the commander-in-chief of the army. Congress is the legislative body. It consists off two houses – the House off Representatives and the Senate. Congress makes federal law, declares war for example. Seat of the government is Washington DC. There are two main political parties – the Republicans (D. Trump) and the Democrats (H. Clinton). Important building is the Pentagon where the headquarters of the Department of Defence are. The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the President with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional. The armed forces consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy and Air Force. Military service is voluntary. Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff's departments, with state police providing broader services. Each city has its own department – for example New York City Police Department (largest in the country). Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security. USA has one of the most developed economies in the wold. The country is full of natural resources. It has one of the largest reserves of black coal. Also, its soil is in very good quality. Approximately one half of the land is farmed. In Midwest there is high production of corn. Fish are another economically important resource. The main salmon and crab hunting grounds are in South Alaska. The largest resources of oil and natural gas are around the Gulf of Mexico and in Texas and Oklahoma. The gases reserves are being quickly used up. Furthermore uranium, iron, copper, zinc and rare metals are mined in the USA. McDonald's and Subway are the two most recognized brands in the world. Coca-Cola is the most recognized soft drink company in the world. The structure of races is connected to colonialism and the importation of slaves. USA is the third most populous country of the world behind the China and India. The religious structure of the US is multiform. Practically all possible churches and sects exist there. The United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Aside from the Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan populations, nearly all Americans or

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