01 The United Kingdom
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01 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland TERMINOGY OF THE ISLANDS British Isles = everything (Great Britain + Ireland + Man)Physical division Ireland Great BritainPolitical division Ireland = Republic of Ireland (Dublin) + Northern Ireland Great Britain = England + Wales + ScotlandThe United Kingdom lies on both islands Great Britain + Northern Ireland CAPITALS England: LondonWales: CardiffScotland: EdinburghNorthern Ireland: Belfast SYMBOLS England patron: St. George – St. George’s cross national flower: rose color: whiteWales patron: St. David – not in the flag – dragon in green and white field national flower: leek and daffodil color: redScotland patron: St. Andrew – St. Andrew’s cross national flower: thistle color: blueIreland patron: St. Patrick – St. Patrick’s cross national flower: shamrock color: green OTHER SYMBOLS of The United Kingdom Anthem God save the Queen God save the KingCapital: LondonCurrency: british poundOfficial language: English – not written anywhereRecognized languages: regional languages of Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Irish, Cornishdoubledecker, post box, telephone box, Big Ben, tea, football, golf … UK FLAG The Union Jack Britain + Scotland + Northern Ireland St. George’s cross + St. Andrew’s cross + St. Patrick’s cross Original Union Flag: without Ireland, United in 1606 for use at sea Current Union Flag: Britain United with Northern Ireland 1801 = new flag POLITICAL MAP situated on archipelago British Isles = GB + Irelandonly one land border – with Irelandmaritime borders – Belgium, Denmark + Faroe Islands, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Norwaylinked with France via Channel Tunnel beneath English Channelthere are 9 official regions (Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, East Midlands, South West, South East, East of England, Greater Londonarea of 242 900 km2 – half the size of Spainpopulation 66 mil: 55.6 mil England, 5.4 mil Scotland, 3.1 mil Wales, 1.9 mil Northern Irelandlife expectancy for both genders is 81.8 yearsreligion: mostly Christianity (most common Anglicans, Catholics), Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism, Buddhism GOVERNMENT unitary stateHer Majesty’s Governmentled by Prime Minister (Boris Johnson) who selects other ministers, HEAD OF GOVERNMENTCabinet = decision-making committee, PM + senior ministersresidence of Parliament = Palace of WestminsterParliament = House of Commons & House of LordsHouse of Commons the lower house elected body consisting of 650 members of ParliamentHouse of Lords = House of Peers the upper house membership by appointment or heredity or official function, 785 membersthe Government is dependent on Parliamentelection is held every five years for the House of Commonsafter election current monarch (Queen Elisabeth II) selects the PM the leader of the party most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commonsmonarch – no power, only official head, HEAD OF STATEmulti-party political systém two dominant parties: Labour and ConservativeCommon Law – not based on codes, based on precedences = something happend in the past, they use the same approach on the current case ECONOMY more economicly developped countryhighly developed social market and market-orientedsixth largest national economy measured by GDPone of most globalised economiesLondon = second largest financial centre in the worldvery service oriented (80.2 % services, 19.2 % industry, 0.6 % agriculture)customer care & headquarters in UK – they speak Englishpart of UN and G7, January 2020 left EUMargaret Thatcher big economic reform in 1980s 1960 and 1970 colonies fell apart, British were struggling – unable to send surplaces abroad, no money for them, couldn‘t recieve free natural resources Huge decline decided to restructuralize the economy and refresh it moved away from agriculture (modernizing agriculture), moving away from heavy industry (end of mining, steelworks) moving closer to modern technologies, investments into biotechnology core: the City = part of London, financial heart – bank, Exchange 2019 – 2020 best city to start your new business reform huge impact – energetic powerty = they do not heat up much – too expensive, many houses not insulated = would lose heat quicklyhuge financial differences divided to clases the rich and the poor „classless society“ = you, no polite adressing as in czech vykání glass ceiling = if you are born poor – limited access to good education, can’t get to higher places in companies, difficult to reachdivision north and south south – agriculture north – used to be industrial, now not that much MT killed manufacture… - north is decimated – three times bigger chance to be pregnant as a teenarge, people experiment with heavy drugs – comparable to south EuropeRolls Roys, Innocent, Tesco, Morrisons, Marks and Spencer, Salisbury NATURAL RESOURCES used to be forestedin 17th century trees used for ships, MT’s reforms – no more treesagriculture is intensive and highly mechanizedlarge coal, natural gas and oil reservesland use: arable land (land capable of being used to grow crops): 25 % permanent pastures: 46 % forests and woodland: 10 % GEOGRAPHY capital: Londonthe terrain is mostly flathighlands: north and west, lowlands: south and eastGeological development started under the Equator – Southern a northern part – hit each other – Southern part pushed Northern part – formed a mountain more than 10km high – rained down Edinburgh volcano castle – dormant volcano – remnants from history Northern rainforest – Yorkshire – coal Southern area = desert – became red soil – most fertile (Devon) fossils everywhere Ice Age – almost completely under glaciers – reached to the middle of london – cavemen moved north – dates to thousand years back melting snow = islands started going up – water into seas and ocean – land bridge disappeared – sea divided Ireland from GBHighest mountains Ben Nevis (Scotland, 1344 m) – Grampian Mountains (south from Loch Ness)