1. Maturitní téma - Czech republic
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CZECH REPUBLIC Geographical position:CR is a landlocked country in the Central Europe. It borders with Poland, Germany, Austria and Slovakia. Landscape: The CR is surrounded by mountain ranges: Krkonoše - the highest mountain in the CR Sněžka, Šumava, Jizerské hory, Jeseníky, etc. Lowlands along big rivers: the Vltava river (Moldan)the Elbe river (flows into the North Sea)the Odra river (the Baltic Sea)the Morava/ Dyje river (the Danube -> the Black Sea) Capital city:The capital and largest city in CR is Prague. Area:The CR occupies the area of 79 000 sq. km. Subdivision:CR is divided into 3 historical lands: Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and into 14 self-governing regions. Population:CR has 10.5 million inhabitants. There are many minority, like: Slovaks, Ukrainians, Vietnamese, Poles, Gypsies, etc.) Political system: CR is a democratic parliamentary republic.The head of the state is the president, now it´s Václav Klaus. representative, ceremonial role elected for a 5-years term by the public head of the army signs new legislation appoints the prime minister, the ministers, judges, university professor, guvernor of CNB declares amnesties he gives state decorationsThe supreme organ of executive power is the government. currently 14 ministries prime minister ministers of culture, agriculture, healthcare, social affairs, foreign affairs, defenceParliament is divided into the Senate (it has 81 senators, who are elected for a 6-year term, 1/4 for 2 years is changing, majority system) and House of Deputies (it has 200 deputies, who are elected for a 4-years term, proportional system). -> this is legislative power coalition: (ODS) Civic Democratic Party TOP 09 (Lidem) Liberal Democracy opposition: (ČSSD) Czech Social Democratic Party the Communist Party Public AffairsProcess of passing news legislation: Parliament (group of MPs), presidents, government, regions -> they propose a new law House of Deputies - discuss it (3 readings) -> submit it to the Senate the Senate: accept it and submit it to the president or return it to the HoD the president: signs it or vetoes HoD can over vote the presidential veto International organization:The CR belong to: OSN (=United Nations Organization)NATO (=North Atlantic Treaty Organization), we entered in 1999UN (=United Nations), we entered in 1993OECD (=Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)WTO (=World Trade Organization)Council of EuropeOBSE (=Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe)EEA (=European Economic Area)EU - we entered in 1 May 2004,The Schengen area, The Visegrad Group. Symbols: flag -> On the left side is a blue triangle, on the bottom is a red stripe and at the top is a white stripe.currency -> Czech crownsother-> large and small national emblem with two-tailed lion, national anthem, the national colors (tricolor), state seal, a banner of the President Christianity: CatholicProtestantOrthodoxatheist Industries and economy: export economy food industry (beer,...) car industry (Škoda, Tatra,...) machinery czech glass/crystal/porcelain... Climate: mild hot summers with temperatures between 20 - 30 degrees cold winters4 season History: 1918: After the collapse of Austro-Hungarian empire, Czechoslovakia was proclaimed. T. G. Masaryk was elected the president and he was called "founding father".1938: There was a Munich Conference which results in a cession of the Sudetenland to Germany.1939: There was a Nazi invasion. We was occupied by Germany. There was established the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.1945: Red Army came to our country. Edvard Beneš issued his decrees which lay the forced Germany to leave and drove Hungarian ethnic out.1948: The Communists came to power. There were many political processes and political purges. Many people were sentenced to death or sentenced to life in jail.1968: There were many reforms. It was called the Prague Spring. These reforms liberalize the regime. Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia.1969: Student Jan Palach burn himself to death in a protest against the presence of the occupation armies.1977: A group of dissidents including playwright Vaclav Havel published Charter 77 calling for restoration of civic and political rights.1989: There was a velvet revolution with peaceful transformation. Husak resigns as president. Dubcek elected chairman of Federal Assembly. Vaclav Havel was elected the president.1993: There was a velvet divorce. Czechoslovakia split into 2 independent states: Czech republic and Slovakia. Places of interest: 12 UNESCO sites -> "old" Prague,Český Krumlov, Holašovice, Brno, Olomouc, Lednice-Valtice, Žďár nad Sázavou, Kutná Hora, Telč, Třebíč, Kroměříž, LitomyšlChurch of St. John Nepomuk in Žďár nad Sázavou The church is located on Green Hill in Žďár nad Sázavou. The church was built between 1719-1722. It is a masterpiece of architect Santini and one of the most original documents Baroque Gothic. The purpose of the construction was to celebrate John Nepomuk such as powerful patron and saint. Since 1994, the church is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.Červená Lhota Červená Lhota is famous Renaissance water castle in the eastern part of South Bohemia. At the castle there were filmed several films and television fairytales. The first written mention dates from 1465. Červená Lhota is named after the colour of the castle. Tour of the castle lasts about 50 minutes. You will see 16 rooms representing housing the nobility in the 19th century and early 20 century.