10) System of education in USA
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10. System of education in the USA In the USA there is not a national system of education. Each of the 50 states has its own laws regulating education. Every child gets minimum of 13 years of education (they need to go to school at least until they are 16). This is regardless of a child’s race, religion, sex, learning problems, ability to speak English or a physical handicap. PRE-SCHOOL: Some children may attend pre-school from as early as three or four years. Before kindergarten there is a possibility to enlist a child into a nursery school which is for ages 3 to 5 years old Similar to other countries, little children start their education with kindergarten between the ages of five and six. They are divided into groups and spend their time playing. Parents have to pay for this pre- school education. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: Elementary school formally starts their compulsory (= obligatory = povinný) education, and covers five grades/years The curriculum is determined by a particular school district but usually essential subjects include English, math and science (where you learn basic facts from biology, physics and chemistry) On the daily schedule is also a little patriotic Pledge of Allegiance which children have to recite every morning before the start of their classes Most children go to public schools without charge, or they have a choice of private schools, which they must pay for Students are graded on a system of A-F; with A being the best, and F meaning fail. There is no E grade, however HIGH SCHOOL: In grade six students go to Junior High and in the ninth grade they change to high school High School includes four grades. Each has a special name in American English o first year students are called freshmen o second year sophomores o third year juniors o final year seniors This usually lasts until students are 18-years-old, but some states allow children to leave school as young as 16 High school offers academic lessons as well as more practical courses such as mechanics, computers They do not have oral examinations in front of the whole class as in the Czech Rrepublic; most of the testing takes place in the form of quizzes, essays and other projects. When students are juniors, they take the SAT test (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This four-hour test quizzes students on their language, writing, math and critical thinking skills, among other things. The scores on this national test determine whether you succeed when applying to the university of your choice The completion of high school is celebrated with a graduation ceremony in which students dress in long gowns, receive their diplomas and toss their flat hats – called mortarboards – in the air At the end of every school year students attend a dance, called the prom, which is an opportunity to dress up and have a good time UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES There are more than 2,000 universities and colleges ranging from private elite institutions such as Yale or Harvard, known as ‘Ivy League schools’, to state universities or local community colleges There you can earn your Bachelor’s and then Master’s degree. A Bachelor’s degree is designed to take four years, but some students take longer. This is also sometimes called your undergraduate degree. After that students continue with their education for about another two years to earn their graduate, or Master’s degree. If they really like studying, they can keep going and earn their PhD or doctorate.