11. English and English speaking countries - P
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11. English and English-speaking countries 1) The importance of English the Indo - European family/language -> the Germanic l., the Slavic l., the Celtic l., ... English is a West Germanic language originated in England and the first language for most people in Australia, Canada, the Commonwealth, Ireland, New Zealand, the USA and of course the United Kingdom (= anglosphere). It´s used also as a second language in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, South Africa. 3 groups of people speaking English - it is their: native language second language (bilingual society) administrative, profesional or educational l. Modern English is sometimes described as a lingua franca (= a common language spoken by two people who do not have the same home language). English is the dominant international language in communications, science, buisness, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy. The reason for spread of the language is influence of British Empire and following World War II. English has the largest vocabulary of all the world´s languages (500 000 words in the Oxford English dictionary). This figure dwarfs the French and German languages. But in Shakespeare´s time, for example, only one milion people spoke English. It was unknown to the rest of the world. Exporting of E. began in the 17th century with the first settlements in the North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States assisted by massive immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries. And that has given the English language its present standing in the world. WHY ENGLISH? historical reasons - Because of the legacy of British or American imperialism, the country´s main institutions may carry put their proceedings in English (parliament, civil service, the schools, ...)internal political reasons - E. may play role in providing a neutral means of communication between different ethnic groups in the country. A distinctive local variety of E. may also become a symbol of national unity or emerging nationhood. external economic reasons - The USA´s dominant economic position acts as a magnet for intenational business and trade so organizations wishing to develop internaional makets are thus under pressure to work with English. practical reasons - E. is developing its role in international maritime, policing, emergency services. Itellectual reasons - Over 80% of all informationsstored in eectronic form is in English. The only way to acces to such authors as Goethe or Dante is through English. Entertainment reasons - E. is a language of popular music, popular culture and advertising, satellite broadcasting, home computers and video games. 2) Basic characteristic SIMPLICITY OF FORM - Old English had many inflections = different forms of words in different situations (plural, tense, person,...) types of languages - synthetic l. = a lot of inflections (Old English, Germanic, Czech, ...) -analytic l. = we need to distinguish the meaning with word order (Modern English), (A dog is chasing a cat and a cat is chasing a dog.) FLEXIBILITY English has become a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different part of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, smile. OPENNES OF VOCABULARY This involves the free admissions of words from other languages. 3) History The history of the English language started with the arrival of 3 Germanic tribes - Angles, Saxons and Jutes- in 5th century AD. They crossed the North sea from what today is Denmark and nothern Germany. At that time the Celtic language was spoken, but the most of Celtic speakers were pushed west and north (what is today Scotland, Wales, Ireland) by the invaders. The Angles came from Englaland and their language was called Englisc -> from which the words England and English are derived. Germanic tribes displaced also the Romans occupiers that speak vulgar latin. Before the time of Romans, Gaelic - the language of the Celts - was in use. Gaelic gave name to places such as for example Thames, Avon and Wye. Roman occurs in place names: Londonium became London. OLD ENGLISH (450 - 1100) The invanding Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Nevertheless, about the half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots, for example: be, strong, water. Old English was spoken until around 1 100. Features of Old English highly inflacted ( = O.E. is synthatic language) case (4) - nominative, genitive, accusative, dative; "possesive genitive" - the house´s back (O.E.) X the back of the house (M.E.) distinguish gender - masculin, feminin, neutral flexible word order - the verb can precede subject or it could stand at the end of the sentance after the object the use of multiple negatives - double/triple In 1597, Christianity arrived in Britain. Abbot Augustin was sent to Britain to spread Christianity there. He founded monasteric centres - monasters (for men), nunneries (for women) and cloister (for both). Here first monks started to create first monuscripts ->latin glossaries were translated into English. At this time the first narrative poem named Beowulf was created. It is epic, so we can find here many informations how the O.E. looked. Christianity brough with it both Latin and Greek which: 1)allowed English language to express abstract thoughts, something almost impossible with the previous Anglo - Saxon vocabulary 2)gave English a large vocabulary related to the Church: angel, devil, priest, bishop, Sabbath 3) also brought with it foreign words from the East: orange, pepper, India, ginger 4)inspired the Anglo-Saxons to use their own words for different concepts. The Old English words od heaven, hell and God took on a new meaning with the arrival of Christianity Between 750 and 1050, the Vikings (Danes) conquered a large part of the British Isles. Before their arrival, Old E