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Education in Great Britain, USA and Czech Republic

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21 Education in Great Britain, USA and Czech Republic a) Great Britain Types of people: Nurseryunder 5 years Infant5 – 7 years Junior7 – 11 years Senior11- 16 plus Further education16 plus University18 plus Primary and Secondary education: Every between 5 – 16 - full time education - boys and girls together - non-selective schools Secondary schools: 1. Comprehensive1 school- the majority choose this school 2. Grammar school- 11 – 18 years - academic education - entrance with examination selective 2. Public schools ( private ):-7 – 8 % of students - ex. Elton, Harrow - quite expensive - students can get scholarship2 there - before they usually attend preparatory school – age 8 – 13 3. The National Curriculum3 :- published in 1989 - they wanted to increase knowledge in age 5 – 16 in England and Wales - purpose:- raise students - extend parental choice - give schools greater responsibilities - emphasis4 the national knowledge - set core5 subjects: - English - Mathematics - Science - and other foundation6 subjects: - Technology - History - Geography - Music - Art - Physical education - Modern foreign language ( All students must study first nine subjects from 5 – 14, but from 11 – 14 they must add modern language ) 4. Key stages :1.Infant - up to 7 years 2. Junior- 7 – 11 years 3. pre-GCSE- 11 – 14 years 4. preparation for GCSE- 14 – 16 5. Education from age of 14:- 14 – 16 years – they have 3 core subjects: 1. Technology 2. Modern language 3. Physical education - In Wales they have alsohistory, geography, their language 6. Examination:- at above 16 - called:General Certificate of Secondary Education – (GCSE) - compulsory7 subjects :- English - Science - Mathematics 7. The higher courses:- at age of 18 - entrance examination for higher education : called A – level - the newer examination is called Advanced Supplementary - for people aged 16 - it enables to increase studied subjects 8. Exceptions in Scotland:- Secondary schools are called Public schools - they move to Sec. schools aged 12 not 11 9. Higher education:- available at Universities and institutions for higher education- Britain has 47 Universities ( include Open University) - the oldest Universities are Oxford and Cambridge (12th – 14th) - Scottish universities – St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen they date from 14th to 15th century 10. UCLES:- it was established in 1858 in Cambridge University - the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate- it sets standards of efficiency8 for schools - it was extended also overseas - in our country promoted by British Council 11. Universities system:- first degree – last 3 – 4 years (medical – 5 years) - the main qualification : B.A. – Bachelor of Arts B.Sc. – Bachelor of Science - for students who are studying subjects such as engineering it is typical that they spend some time in the industrial location so that they get experience - degrees:- first class - second class- upper - lower - third class The degrees depends on the results achieved in three-hour examination and with practical work in core subject. - sandwich courses – studying with a work - continuing can be for degree : Master of Art Master of Science Master of Philosophy - it needs 1 or 2 years more - minority9 go on further – degree of Doctor of Philosophy b) USA Characteristic- in individual states is different - government gives money to schools - government has only little control over curriculum - schools controlled by electedschool board  large difference between schools  voted by people  the quality depends on this board - the beginning of the school year is in each state different, the end is usually in May or June - school year is divided into three terms or quarters - at the end of the year they gettranscript - schools divided- pre-school and elementary - secondary - higher Types of schools - Public schools- financed by the state - these schools are free of charge - Private schools- high tuition10  attended by children of the rich families - all offer scholarship - schools sponsored by organisations are much cheaper - some schools remain single-sex - they usually wear uniforms Pre-school and elementary - pre-school include nursery and kindergartens which are up to 5 or 6 and most of them are private - compulsory education begins at age of 6 - elementary(6-11) and secondary ed. is compulsory - year is called GRADE - at elementary school they learn the basic subjects Secondary education- over 90% of students study till 18 - this study is provided byMiddle School(11-14) orHigh School - High school is divided intoJunior High(12-15) andHigh School(15-18) - in some places you can visit specialised sec. schools (science, navy, arts) - at high schools they can choose several subjects(history, English, math) - some schools offer different programs of study or opportunity to get a level of academic study known as a track - high schools organised a lot of programs outside the classroom - most of them have their own football, baseball team or choir or band Qualification - when leaving school they are awarded theHigh school diploma - after passing the examination they getScholastic Aptitude Test - thenationalexamination to enter the college is calledScholastic Aptitude Test - after the secondary school they can go either to state-funded or private college or university Higher Education - one third of the students continue on higher education - the institutions are: Community colleges Vo-tech Universities Colleges Technical colleges Community Colleges- for people with High School Diploma - after two years they are awarded Associate of Arts degree - semi-professional education, vocational Vo-techs- vocational technical schools - the study took 6 months to 2 years - after finishing people take up employment Universities and Colleges- applicants11 are selected on the basic of the high-school transcript12 and teacher’s recommendation, some times they can require test results - they offer undergraduate courses of 4 years of study

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