Education in Great Britain, USA and Czech Republic
Stáhnout kompletní materiál zdarma (42 kB)
Níže je uveden pouze náhled materiálu. Kliknutím na tlačítko 'Stáhnout soubor' stáhnete kompletní formátovaný materiál ve formátu DOC.
21 Education in Great Britain, USA and Czech Republic a) Great Britain Types of people: Nurseryunder 5 years Infant5 – 7 years Junior7 – 11 years Senior11- 16 plus Further education16 plus University18 plus Primary and Secondary education: Every between 5 – 16 - full time education - boys and girls together - non-selective schools Secondary schools: 1. Comprehensive1 school- the majority choose this school 2. Grammar school- 11 – 18 years - academic education - entrance with examination selective 2. Public schools ( private ):-7 – 8 % of students - ex. Elton, Harrow - quite expensive - students can get scholarship2 there - before they usually attend preparatory school – age 8 – 13 3. The National Curriculum3 :- published in 1989 - they wanted to increase knowledge in age 5 – 16 in England and Wales - purpose:- raise students - extend parental choice - give schools greater responsibilities - emphasis4 the national knowledge - set core5 subjects: - English - Mathematics - Science - and other foundation6 subjects: - Technology - History - Geography - Music - Art - Physical education - Modern foreign language ( All students must study first nine subjects from 5 – 14, but from 11 – 14 they must add modern language ) 4. Key stages :1.Infant - up to 7 years 2. Junior- 7 – 11 years 3. pre-GCSE- 11 – 14 years 4. preparation for GCSE- 14 – 16 5. Education from age of 14:- 14 – 16 years – they have 3 core subjects: 1. Technology 2. Modern language 3. Physical education - In Wales they have alsohistory, geography, their language 6. Examination:- at above 16 - called:General Certificate of Secondary Education – (GCSE) - compulsory7 subjects :- English - Science - Mathematics 7. The higher courses:- at age of 18 - entrance examination for higher education : called A – level - the newer examination is called Advanced Supplementary - for people aged 16 - it enables to increase studied subjects 8. Exceptions in Scotland:- Secondary schools are called Public schools - they move to Sec. schools aged 12 not 11 9. Higher education:- available at Universities and institutions for higher education- Britain has 47 Universities ( include Open University) - the oldest Universities are Oxford and Cambridge (12th – 14th) - Scottish universities – St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen they date from 14th to 15th century 10. UCLES:- it was established in 1858 in Cambridge University - the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate- it sets standards of efficiency8 for schools - it was extended also overseas - in our country promoted by British Council 11. Universities system:- first degree – last 3 – 4 years (medical – 5 years) - the main qualification : B.A. – Bachelor of Arts B.Sc. – Bachelor of Science - for students who are studying subjects such as engineering it is typical that they spend some time in the industrial location so that they get experience - degrees:- first class - second class- upper - lower - third class The degrees depends on the results achieved in three-hour examination and with practical work in core subject. - sandwich courses – studying with a work - continuing can be for degree : Master of Art Master of Science Master of Philosophy - it needs 1 or 2 years more - minority9 go on further – degree of Doctor of Philosophy b) USA Characteristic- in individual states is different - government gives money to schools - government has only little control over curriculum - schools controlled by electedschool board large difference between schools voted by people the quality depends on this board - the beginning of the school year is in each state different, the end is usually in May or June - school year is divided into three terms or quarters - at the end of the year they gettranscript - schools divided- pre-school and elementary - secondary - higher Types of schools - Public schools- financed by the state - these schools are free of charge - Private schools- high tuition10 attended by children of the rich families - all offer scholarship - schools sponsored by organisations are much cheaper - some schools remain single-sex - they usually wear uniforms Pre-school and elementary - pre-school include nursery and kindergartens which are up to 5 or 6 and most of them are private - compulsory education begins at age of 6 - elementary(6-11) and secondary ed. is compulsory - year is called GRADE - at elementary school they learn the basic subjects Secondary education- over 90% of students study till 18 - this study is provided byMiddle School(11-14) orHigh School - High school is divided intoJunior High(12-15) andHigh School(15-18) - in some places you can visit specialised sec. schools (science, navy, arts) - at high schools they can choose several subjects(history, English, math) - some schools offer different programs of study or opportunity to get a level of academic study known as a track - high schools organised a lot of programs outside the classroom - most of them have their own football, baseball team or choir or band Qualification - when leaving school they are awarded theHigh school diploma - after passing the examination they getScholastic Aptitude Test - thenationalexamination to enter the college is calledScholastic Aptitude Test - after the secondary school they can go either to state-funded or private college or university Higher Education - one third of the students continue on higher education - the institutions are: Community colleges Vo-tech Universities Colleges Technical colleges Community Colleges- for people with High School Diploma - after two years they are awarded Associate of Arts degree - semi-professional education, vocational Vo-techs- vocational technical schools - the study took 6 months to 2 years - after finishing people take up employment Universities and Colleges- applicants11 are selected on the basic of the high-school transcript12 and teacher’s recommendation, some times they can require test results - they offer undergraduate courses of 4 years of study