11.GOVERNEMENT OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC
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11. The Czech Republic- government StructureLegislatureJudiciaryPolitical PartiesElections AfteroverthrowingCommunism, the countryset upa parliamentary republic democracy. In its current form the Constitution has been valid since 1 January 1993, since the date the independent Czech state was established, as a result of the separation of Czechoslovakia.Power is divided into legislative (Czech Parliament), executive (Czech Government and the President of the Republic) and judicial powers. The Parliament of the Czech Republic is made up of two chambers –the House of Parliament andthe Senate.. Every citizen who is at least 18 years old is entitled to vote for candidates to the House of Parliament and the Senate. TheChamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic is the lower house (dolní sněmovna) of the bicameral (dvojkomorvý)Parliament of the Czech Republic. The seat of the Chamber of Deputies is situated in palaces inMalá Strana,Prague. Everycitizen of the Czech Republic aged at least 21 who has the right to vote is eligible to be elected. There are 200 seats in chamber of deputies and they serve a 4−year term. Important jurisdiction of the House of Parliament are mostly discusses and approves laws. TheSenate (senit) of the Parliament of the Czech Republic, is the upper chamber of theParliament of the Czech Republic. The seat of the Senate isWallenstein Palace inPrague. The Senate has 81 members, elected for six years, every two years one third of them, in one-seat constituencies through two rounds majority system. A candidate for the Senate does not need to be on a political party's ticket. Actual president of senate is Milan Štěch, who is a member of ČSSD and he is president since 24 November 2010. Important jurisdictions of House of parliament are:discusses and approves laws, decides on the appearance of the state budget or for example entitled to declare lack of confidence in the Government. Czech Government.The Government is the supreme body of executive power. It answers to the House of Parliament for its actions. As well as the Government, ministries and other administrative bodies are also part of the executive power. These can only be established and their jurisdiction defined by the law. Czech Prime Minister is the head of government of the Czech Republic who is appointed by the President and who is housed in Kramářova villa. The current Prime Minister is Bohuslav Sobotka, who is a member of ČSSD and who take office since 29 January 2014.The first Prime Minister of the Czech Republic wasVáclav Klaus, who served as the second President from March 7, 2003 until March 7, 2013ThePresident of the Czech Republic is thehead of state of theCzech Republic.The president is the head of state and is in charge of appointing the prime minister, who is the head of government.Current president of the Czech Republic isMiloš Zeman, who is in office since 8 March 2013. First Czechoslovakia’s president wasTomáš Garrigue Masaryk. The president serves a five-year term- he is elected directly by the people.Important jurisdiction of the President of the Republic are appoints and dismisses the head and other members of the Government and accepts their resignation, dismisses the Government and accepts its resignation, summons meetings of the House of Parliament or signs laws. Important jurisdictions of president are:Appoints and dismisses the head and other members of the Government and accepts their resignation, dismisses the Government and accepts its resignation Dissolves the House of Parlament or signs the law, Political parties: The largest parties in the Czech Republic presently are the centre-left Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) with current leader Bohuslav Sobotka,Action of Dissatisfied Citizen (ANO) with leader Andrej Babiš,Communist Party of Bohemian and Moravia (KSČM), the centrist Christian Democratic Union-Czech Peoples’ party (KDU-ČSL). I hope that taking part in general election is very important, because it can change a appearance of current goevernemnt and I hope, that it should be consider as a national duty. Even though that this is my opinion, I haven’ voted yet, because I was travelling, when there was first election, where I could vote.