14. Victorian period
Stáhnout kompletní materiál zdarma (17,27 kB)
Níže je uveden pouze náhled materiálu. Kliknutím na tlačítko 'Stáhnout soubor' stáhnete kompletní formátovaný materiál ve formátu DOCX.
VICTORIAN PERIOD AGRI CULTURAL REVOLUTION 1750s - bigger fields with less people working on them - common land –rural household economy - late 18th century – Industrial revolution -textiles - raw cotton to clothing/material - having more and better food – cheaper -huge population explosion – people were living better life -weavers –cottage industries, small family factories - huge explosion of criminality - squatters rights – you take land, after 10 years you own it, it is yours - farming was more profitable, but theyneeded less workers in the countryside - it leads to urbanization - Enclosure Act – small farmers were pushed out – farming more profitable - 18th century, happened in Tudor period 16th century - you steal food – punishment -industrial revolution – work force in cities, work is needed - people are unemployed - cotton replaces wool - weavers – industrialization – kicked off - steam powered machines -profit is lower, factories produce more and faster -Luddife riots - Nedd Ludd – smashing up machines, destroying - rebellion, plan the operations - lost work because of the machines - back to back housing –shifts, 1 family worked throughout the day, other in the night CHILD LABOUR - in early stages 16h/day - many families relied on child labour – source of income -chimney sweeps – děti je čistily zevnitř, they could fit them inside - hard conditions - child prostitution - from 1760s children working from age of 6 - industrial environment, not alongside of their families -injuries - coal mines – boys especially - employers often preferred child labour because they could pay them less and they fit into small places, so they could clean under the machines - child labour created discipline and hard work – some people believed this - match factories in London – removing lower jaw - low child life expectancy - there were groups that were against child labour and they wanted children to have education and have an actual childhood (that was a new concept). But the general consensus, at least at first, was that child labour was necessary -childhood is a new concept - women in mines – semi naked, topless, shocking – boys of 11 saw women “naked”, hypocrisy LAISSEZ FAIR ECONOMICS =non state intervention, let it be - economic system/philosophy - regulation, control and privileges don’t exist - liberalism in economy, classical liberalism - we should have capitalism untouched and then everybody will have enough of everything - capitalism will deal with everything else - practical terms – people can be exploited easily, no rules, law, no guarantee of work conditions workhouses – loop, desperation, hard to escape – they work and got food and shelter in exchange - families were separated, tight schedule, Sunday – resting day - kids were taken away from parents - created in 1840s – early Victorian period - people could leave, but have not got place to go/live/no money -if you were poor, it was your fault, you did not work enough - new social hierarchy SocialDarwinism = some people are better suited for survival than others Soft Eugenics = race differences, Nazis got idea from this, we are not going to help you survive because other generations would need help too,sterilization of poor Afro-American women – in prison Hard Eugenics = people who are not suited for survival should be in isolation Population boom – we are producing more, than we need - entitlements = nároky - sanitation Irish potato famine (great)– period of starvation, repression or epression of population - 1844-1845 disease, black potatoes - protectionist policy – British food, people couldnt afford to buy the food -famine caused by economic policy 1814-1846 wars - anticatholic legislation – 2nd class citizens Women’s life - women had no automatic rights of inheritance or right to vote - woman married sm – becomes property of her husband -fallenwomen – prostitution, social stigma - hourglass figure – corsets, smelling salts, concept of beauty -stereotype – women at home cleaning, with kids raising them -Caroline Norton – social reformer, author - she wanted to divorce her husband, but he sued her friend from adultery - she was unable to obtain a divorce and was denied access to her three sons - first major feminism movement -hysteria –opium, opium wars, huge black market in London, middle-class, cocaine – upper-class -prostitution– they could go to prison for this → prisons were overfull – ships on Themes turned to prisons - 160 000+ people were transported to the colonies (20% Irish – political reasons) - 80% men, 20% women - women in transport → turn to prostitution to escape, survival purposes -1839 - Custody of Infants Act - her argument was the natural right of mothers to have custody of their children - there was a need for the reform - previously – mostly child custody was awarded to the father - now- it permitted a mother to petition the courts for custody of her children up to the age of seven - 1870 Married Women's Property Act - it allowed married women to be the legal owners of the money they earned and to inherit property Property and inheritance -common land – countryside areas which nobody owned - agricultural revolution – survival of the household, starvation or poverty – stolen land – criminality – urbanization/migration because of work - land ownership – radical idea from aristocracy 1857 -Divorce law,Matrimonial Causes Act - women must prove:adultery (cizoložství)andcruelty 1864 Contagious diseases act -Public health venereal disease (pohlavní nemoc) - try to stop disease - state rape – men are not checked - upper class and middle-class women were against this - police officers were allowed to arrest women suspected of being prostitutes - compulsory checks