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14. Victorian period

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VICTORIAN PERIOD AGRI CULTURAL REVOLUTION 1750s - bigger fields with less people working on them - common land –rural household economy - late 18th century – Industrial revolution -textiles - raw cotton to clothing/material - having more and better food – cheaper -huge population explosion – people were living better life -weavers –cottage industries, small family factories - huge explosion of criminality - squatters rights – you take land, after 10 years you own it, it is yours - farming was more profitable, but theyneeded less workers in the countryside - it leads to urbanization - Enclosure Act – small farmers were pushed out – farming more profitable - 18th century, happened in Tudor period 16th century - you steal food – punishment -industrial revolution – work force in cities, work is needed - people are unemployed - cotton replaces wool - weavers – industrialization – kicked off - steam powered machines -profit is lower, factories produce more and faster -Luddife riots - Nedd Ludd – smashing up machines, destroying - rebellion, plan the operations - lost work because of the machines - back to back housing –shifts, 1 family worked throughout the day, other in the night CHILD LABOUR - in early stages 16h/day - many families relied on child labour – source of income -chimney sweeps – děti je čistily zevnitř, they could fit them inside - hard conditions - child prostitution - from 1760s children working from age of 6 - industrial environment, not alongside of their families -injuries - coal mines – boys especially - employers often preferred child labour because they could pay them less and they fit into small places, so they could clean under the machines - child labour created discipline and hard work – some people believed this - match factories in London – removing lower jaw - low child life expectancy - there were groups that were against child labour and they wanted children to have education and have an actual childhood (that was a new concept). But the general consensus, at least at first, was that child labour was necessary -childhood is a new concept - women in mines – semi naked, topless, shocking – boys of 11 saw women “naked”, hypocrisy LAISSEZ FAIR ECONOMICS =non state intervention, let it be - economic system/philosophy - regulation, control and privileges don’t exist - liberalism in economy, classical liberalism - we should have capitalism untouched and then everybody will have enough of everything - capitalism will deal with everything else - practical terms – people can be exploited easily, no rules, law, no guarantee of work conditions workhouses – loop, desperation, hard to escape – they work and got food and shelter in exchange - families were separated, tight schedule, Sunday – resting day - kids were taken away from parents - created in 1840s – early Victorian period - people could leave, but have not got place to go/live/no money -if you were poor, it was your fault, you did not work enough - new social hierarchy SocialDarwinism = some people are better suited for survival than others Soft Eugenics = race differences, Nazis got idea from this, we are not going to help you survive because other generations would need help too,sterilization of poor Afro-American women – in prison Hard Eugenics = people who are not suited for survival should be in isolation Population boom – we are producing more, than we need - entitlements = nároky - sanitation Irish potato famine (great)– period of starvation, repression or epression of population - 1844-1845 disease, black potatoes - protectionist policy – British food, people couldnt afford to buy the food -famine caused by economic policy 1814-1846 wars - anticatholic legislation – 2nd class citizens Women’s life - women had no automatic rights of inheritance or right to vote - woman married sm – becomes property of her husband -fallenwomen – prostitution, social stigma - hourglass figure – corsets, smelling salts, concept of beauty -stereotype – women at home cleaning, with kids raising them -Caroline Norton – social reformer, author - she wanted to divorce her husband, but he sued her friend from adultery - she was unable to obtain a divorce and was denied access to her three sons - first major feminism movement -hysteria –opium, opium wars, huge black market in London, middle-class, cocaine – upper-class -prostitution– they could go to prison for this → prisons were overfull – ships on Themes turned to prisons - 160 000+ people were transported to the colonies (20% Irish – political reasons) - 80% men, 20% women - women in transport → turn to prostitution to escape, survival purposes -1839 - Custody of Infants Act - her argument was the natural right of mothers to have custody of their children - there was a need for the reform - previously – mostly child custody was awarded to the father - now- it permitted a mother to petition the courts for custody of her children up to the age of seven - 1870 Married Women's Property Act - it allowed married women to be the legal owners of the money they earned and to inherit property Property and inheritance -common land – countryside areas which nobody owned - agricultural revolution – survival of the household, starvation or poverty – stolen land – criminality – urbanization/migration because of work - land ownership – radical idea from aristocracy 1857 -Divorce law,Matrimonial Causes Act - women must prove:adultery (cizoložství)andcruelty 1864 Contagious diseases act -Public health venereal disease (pohlavní nemoc) - try to stop disease - state rape – men are not checked - upper class and middle-class women were against this - police officers were allowed to arrest women suspected of being prostitutes - compulsory checks

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