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English history from 1603

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23 English history from 1603 a) History from 1603 1. The civil war After Elizabeth the Stuart’s came to the English throne. One of Stuart’s was Charles I. He ignored parliament and prevented1 it for meeting for eleven years until he needed its help to rise the tax for the war against Scotland. When the parliament opposed2 him, he wanted to arrest the main leaders and therefor the relation3 between parliament and Charles I. became so bad, that the civil war started in 1642. The majority of the Gentry supported parliament in this war. After Oliver Cromwell let to victory in 1645 Charles I. was executed4 and Cromwell became Lord Protector.England became the republic. 2. The restoration 1660 After Cromwell’s death the monarchy was destroyed, because Cromwell’s son was unable to follow his father. In 1660 Charles II. was invited to sit on the throne of a country. The plague and the great fire in 1666, which destroyed most of the city of London during his reign, were considered as a anger5 of the God for puritans. Then reigned James II. He released the idea of necessary government and parliament. Parliament was dominated by two groups - the Whigs (Liberal party) and the Tories (Conservative party). The Whigs was exclude Charles’s catholic brothers, the Tories promoted the royality. 3. The glorious revolution 1688 After James’s death parliament agreed to invite William III. of Orange and Marry to take the crown. This revolution was bloody. The Bill of Right(no Catholic could claim6 the throne), which made obligatory7 to rule the parliament system, accompanied8 it. They outlaw catholic and that English king haven’t been allowed to be Catholic. 4. 18th and 19th century Queen Ann united England with Scotland in 1707 and Scottish and English parliament became one. She didn’t have children. There were some descendants of James II.(George I) in Hanover and they were Protestants. They didn’t want to change their religion. They became English kings in Germany, they didn’t speak English and they didn’t spend much time in England. It was reason that new post - prime minister - was risen. The first Prime Minister was Walpole. The British colonized Canada and India. The agriculture9 revolution- Farms were connected with large fields and agriculture production was increased. The industrial revolution - Industry was transformed and a lot of machines were used and great factories were founded. There were also a lot of successful inventions in Britain. Population boom - In 1700 live in Britain 5 millions of people and in 1821 already 14 millions. 5. Queen Victoria - born in 1819, reign 1837-1901. British products were exported all over the world. Because of poor workerstrade unions were founded. Queen Victoria created large empire, which was situated in the 1/4 of the world. British Empire was so large because of commercial reasons, military and strategic reasons. In this period were many changes in British institutions and in ways of life. Queen Victory wanted to be informing about government policy and she was politically neutral. She made the life of aristocracy and arranged party very often. This fact enabled people to agree with her like a widow10 . She is known for her values. She promoted11 discipline of the family and the Puritanism of public life. During her reign Prime Minister was Disraeli and after him Gladstone. The reign of Queen Victoria was successful and without war in England. After the death of Queen Victoria Britain declined12 as a world power and Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa were allowed to draw up their constitutions and became dominions. Vast areas of Africa and India remained under British domination. 6. The first world war The main reason of the First World War was the rivalry between great European powers. They wanted to gain other colonists. In Great Britain there woman’s contributions13 to the war was so important that it was impossible to denied them the ride the vote. 7. The twenties and the thirties This period was influenced by the situation in economy. Unemployment was high, wages14 were low. There were many strikes15 including general strike in 1926. Wall Street was crashed in 1929. 8. The second world war Great Britain was for this war very ill prepare. That had cost Great Britain 1/4 of its national wealth16 . Why - they wanted resolve this problem by peace at first and they didn’t arm so much. But when Germany attacked Poland Great Britain enter to war nly three days later. The very important person during this war was Winston Churchill. Battle of Britain - German Luftwaffe inflicted great damage on London, but was repelled by the royal Air Force 9. After the Second World War After the war the laber government nationalist the railways, the coalmine, steelworks, gas and electricity industries. They extended the social service provided by the state insurance against unemployment and old age, weekly benefits for minimum needs and free medical health care for everyone - National Medical Service. Great Britain lost its last colonists - India. During fifties there was a period of the grow of the private system. Old colonists formed the Comenwales. Britain lost influence in world affairs resulted in application for membership in EEC - European economy community. The sixties in Great Britain was influenced by music most, mainly by The Beatles and Rolling Stones. b) The importance of the family today ) zabránit ) čelit, vzdorovat ) vztah ) popravit ) zlost ) nárok ) povinný ) doprovázet ) zemědělství ) vdova ) podporovat ) sestup, pokles ) příspěvek, válečná daň ) probíhat, trvat, mzda ) stávka, úder ) bohatství, majetek

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