15. The literature between the wars
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15. The Literature Between the Wars profile: The lost generation (Fitzgerald’s Contemporaries) state: F.S. Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby The Lost Generation only American writersa generation of artists born at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries (generation between the wars)after WWI, they were mentally (some also physically) devastatedwar experience led to PTSD, drugs, alcoholism…no one really understood them (they didn’t fit in society anymore)some of them personally experienced horrors of war (they saw how people were killed)after war, they lost belief in “modern” society (they lost all their ideals and dreams)existentialism is philosophical movement (What’s purpose of life? Wants to find the way, wants to find that purpose of life)on the other hand,nihilism is the belief that nothing in the world has a real existence (negative) rejection of all religious and moral principles, in the belief that the life is meaninglessexistentialism came from Danish philosopherSoren Kierkegaardthe name Lost Generation was first used byGertrude Steinthe best known, writers areG. Stein,E. Hemingway,J. Dos Passos,T. S. Elliot,F. S. Fitzgerald,John Steinbeck,Theodor Dreiser Gertrude Stein she stayed in Paris after WWIshe was a supporter of artists involved in the avantgarde movementsshe experimented with words (the look and the sound played significant role in her work)she wrote about reality (her own experience)her famous sentence“A rose is a rose is a rose is a rose:”works –Three lives,The making of Americans Ernest Hemingway from Illinoishis father loved hunting and fishing and took his family with himself (huge influence on him we can see these activities in his work)as a young man took part in WWI as a member of ambulance serviceafter he became a journalist, and later started writing novels and storiesduring twenties Hemingway became amember of the group of expatriate Americans in Paris (he described this experience in his first important workThe Sun Also Rises)during the Spanish civil war, he worked as a war correspondent (also had influence on his work)he was awarded theNobel Prize for literature (1954)he suffered depression, drank a lot (commited suicide)Hemingway liked adventure (hunting, fishing, bull fighting)he loved Spain (the people, traditions, festivals – for example we can see tradition ofSanferimens in his work but it’s not the only one, all of these are reflected in his novels and short stories)his style is sometimes calledtelegraphic (because of the short, simple sentences, he wasn’t using many descriptive adjectives – usually adds a sense of drama to the action)he was also famous for theiceberg writing technique (skipping some background, unimportant information and details, the reader can understand the background from reading, it’s sort of minimalist style)his work is strongly influenced by WWI and its impact on the whole society works: The Sun Also Rises – a personal tragedy of man who was sexually maimed during WWI and tries to cope with life and himself (setting – Paris, Spain / background – festivals) A Farewell to Arms – about love of an American soldier and English nurse in the Italian service during WWI For Whom the Bell Tolls – a psychological picture of an American who fights in Spanish Civil War (he experienced the 3 most important stages of life in 3 days adolescence, love, death) The Old Man and The Sea – Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for this short novel, it’s about moral victory of man over element (nature, ocean, fish) Hemingway is said to be one of the best story writers evercollections of stories –In Our Time,Men Without Womenfamous stories –The Snows of Kilimanjaro,A clean Well-Lighted Place,Cat in the Rain A Clean, Well-Lighted Place Plot Overview An old man sits alone at night in a café. He is deaf and likes when the night grows still. Two waiters watch the old man carefully because they know he won’t pay if he gets too drunk. One waiter tells the other that the old man tried to kill himself because he was in despair. The other waiter asks why he felt despair, and the first waiter says the reason was “nothing” because the man has a lot of money. The waiters look at the empty tables and the old man, who sits in the shadow of a tree. They see a couple walk by, a soldier with a girl. One of the waiters says the soldier had better be careful about being out because the guards just went by. The old man taps his glass against its saucer and asks the younger waiter for a brandy. The younger waiter tells him he’ll get drunk, then goes back and tells the older waiter that the old man will stay all night. The younger waiter says he never goes to bed earlier than 3 a.m.and that the old man should have killed himself. He takes the old man his brandy. As he pours it, he tells the old man that he should have killed himself, but the old man just indicates that he wants more brandy in the glass. The younger waiter tells the older waiter that the old man is drunk, then asks again why he tried to kill himself. The older waiter says he doesn’t know. The younger waiter asks how he did it. The older waiter says he tried to hang himself and his niece found him and got him down. The younger waiter asks why she got him down, and the older waiter says they were concerned about his soul. The waiters speculate on how much money the old man has and decide he’s probably age eighty. The younger waiter says he wishes the old man would leave so that he can go home and go to bed with his wife. The older waiter says that the old man was married at one time. The younger waiter says a wife wouldn’t do him any good, but the older waiter disagrees. The younger waiter points out that the old man has his niece, then says he doesn’t want to be an old man. The older waiter points out that the old man is clean and drinks neatly. The younger waiter says again that he wishes the old man would leave. The old man indicates that he wants another brandy, but the younger waiter tells him they’re clos