15) History of the USA I.
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15. History of the USA I. ● 1492 USA was discovered by Christopher Columbus (but GB is not involved) ● 1584 the first English settlement in Virginia ○ It was not not pernament = only during the summer ● 1607 ○ James Town only for summer ● 1620 The Pilgrim Fathers ○ Pilgrim Fathers were puritans from England, they imigrated to America because GB was not safe for them (imigrants there) ○ Mayflower ship ○ 1 st pernament settlement in America in Plymouth ○ they survived winter, then they learned how to grow corn (by Indians) ● 1649 - 1660 ○ Royalists came to America ○ They came to the south and made the first plantations there ○ in 1660 they also had first slaves (otrok) ● in America had colonies : England, France, Netherlands, Spain ○ and England dominated the east coast ● 18 th century there were wars between England and France in America ○ 1763 France in America defeated by England ○ => but wars were really expensive => so there were established new taxes in American colonies ● taxes on tea, paper, things they needed everyday ○ => English colonies couldn´t trade with French and Spanish colonies ○ => colonies had to pay for English army (because the army is protecting them) ■ this they didn´t understand because war was over… so why they had to pay?? ○ => law against American industry ■ America had a good raw industry but they couldn´t have any industry because industry in England needed the material from America se they took all material to England ○ this all inflicted (způsobilo) that people were really unhappy ● 16th December 1773 ○ BOSTON TEA PARTY ○ important because it was the first act of violence against the England ○ people were dressed as Indians (50 people) and they threw tea cargo into the sea ● 1774 ○ the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia ○ there was formed unofficial government ○ they started to buy arms ● 1775 ○ first shots => war started ■ English wanted to confiscate some guns for them… ○ 2nd Continental Congress ■ first US Army was established - leader was G. Washington ● 4.7.1776 ○ DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE ○ war of independence ■ US Army ● + revolutionary (motivated) ● + knew the terrain ● - poor training because of poor oficers ● - no navy (žádné lodě) ● - shortage of guns and food ● - desertions ■ English army ● + trained proffesionals ● - expensive transport (3.000 miles) ■ 1777 ● turning point of the war at battle at Saratoga ● US had north under control ● France + Spain finally helped to USA (till this year they were just saying that they´ll help) ■ 1781 ● English leader Lord Cornwallis gave up / surrendered ■ 1783 ● Peace treaty signed ● 1789 ○ US constitution