16. Dystopian literature (George Orwell, Animal Farm and other works)
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16) Dystopian Literature State: George Orwell; Animal Farm and Other Works GEORGE ORWELL - pen name for Eric Blair - he was born in India in 1903 (part of English empire), died in 1950 - to British parents - journalist, one of the best English essayists - parents sent him to English prep school, he won scholarship to Eton - but he turned against the values of the English public school system – but graduated from Eton - never went to university - he was teacher in UK for 1year -everybody has their own internal universeas beautiful as everyone else’s - lived in Paris, travelled in northern Europe - life among classes – documentary, autobiographic – how much costs the rent, quality of life =what life is for poor, revealing it for upper classes - then returned toBurma and served in Indian police in Burma -Burmese days – policeman in Burma, feels isolated - can speak Burmese, adores the culture, people call him bad names -internal universe – internal monolog →modernist - how do we know what objective reality is? How do we create it? - when we are kept alone objective reality can be created by political party - he went to trip in Burma, - glade –,,it’s so beautiful I could cry, but meaningless because I’m not sharing it with someone” → loneliness - ,,does it have value when you don’t share it?” - fought inSpanish Civil War 1936 – his experiences changed theview on communists and fascist – their onlyaim is to get the power and not to help society or the people - Catholic church x military – fascism - Spanish communist party was directly controlled by Stalin - Soviet Union – supported the side they liked - Mussolini → Franko - communism as thread - Britain was sitting on its hands (víme z dějáčku, VB a neintervence) – fascism – we can do business - Orwell was shot in neck in Spain - returned to Britain - communists wanted to kill him – orders from Moscow - he wassocial democrat, anti-communist, anti-totalitarianism, Marxist – 1936 went to Spain to fight Francisco Franco and joined the Marxist group -individuality over ideology - lung problems →tuberculosis - had connections with British upper class Orwellian = it is an adjective used to describe a situation that Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free and open society Animal Farm -it is an allegory for Soviet Union and its transformation from communism ideals of equality into totalitarian rule by single dictator - reflects Russian revolution of 1917, French revolution 1789 - power can often lead to corruption and oppression(útlak) Themes:corruption – Napoleon and other pigs are leading other animals far astray from their original ideas Exploitation – working animals are exploited by the pigs to provide their needs Deception – Napoleon and Squealer bend history to better suit their needs bysupressing education (potlačování vzdělání) Idealism – dreams of equality and animal bravery – elements for revolution Motifs:songs – serve as propaganda,Beasts of England, Animal Farm Animal Farm State ritual – large parades, new songs – the state attempts to reinforce the loyalty of the animals by increasing the frequency of the rituals Symbols:animal farm - symbolizes Russia and the Soviet Union under Communist Party rule, stands forany human society – a government (the pigs), a police force or army (the dogs), a working class (the other animals) The windmill – symbolizes pig’s manipulation of other animals for their own gain, despite the immediacy of the need for food and warmth, the pigs exploit Boxer and the other animals The barn – pigs pint theSeven Commandmentsof its walls, represents the collective memory of a modern nation – pigs changed the principals of animalism – institution in power can change a community’s concept of history Plot: -Oldmajor – boar (kanec), introduces his ideas about self-rule and animal rebellion, teaching the other animal the songBeasts of England, later replaced byComrade Napoleon; it corresponds to socialist anthemThe Internationale - animal rebel against their farmerMr. Jones and take over his farm -Battle of cowshed – animals defend their farm from humans for the first time -SnowballandNapoleon compete for leadership -Napoleonexpelled Snowball using propaganda delivered bySquealer and educating the animals turningSnowball from hero to scapegoat (obětní beránek) Animalism = allegoric reference to communism, Snowball, napoleon and Squealer adapt Old Majors ideas into a complete system of thought -Napoleon imposes his will to animals making them work harder for less and less, while he and other pigs live more extravagantly with plenty of food and detached from the community - he orders the construction of a windmill (modernizing the farm) – (beenSnowballs idea) – but when they defend farm against Fredrick, windmill is destroyed -Boxer is send to slaughter (na porážku) and other animals are lied to about what happened to him - original document animals lived by is modified to single commandment –All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others - pigs walk on two legs and are more educated - pigs and humans gather together to celebrate theirexploitation of other working creatures in the farm - Old majors dream = animals should have better life, independent, free, all animals to be united -animal-controlled society - it represents Marx/Lenin, shapes ideology and philosophy - everything they produce is for everyone - sharing - he criticizes humans because 1. They are cruel 2. Are slaughtering animals 3. Maltreatment the animals receive from humans Old Major – he provides the inspiration that fuels the rebellionhe is an allegorical combination of Karl Marx, one of the creators of communism, and Vladimir Lenin, the communist leader of the Russian Revolution and the early Soviet nation, in that he draws up the principles of the revolution. His skull being put on revered public display recalls Lenin, whose embalmed body was put on display. By the end of the book, the skull is reburied.Napole