18. System of government in UK
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18. System of Government UK profile: Evolution of the State and Constitution, Electoral System, Devolution state: Contemporary Politics, Political Parties, Existing Constitution evolution of the state and constitution it’s not just one event but slow evolution of certain events – evolutions and revolutions – series of eventsthe UK constitution is an accumulation of various judicial precedents, conventions, treaties (smlouvy) and other sources which collectively can be referred to as the British Constitutionwe can describe it as an“uncodified” constitutionone of the first events wasMagna Charta 1215Barons – society like pyramid – top – king, then baronsKing– money from taxesBarons don’t like king is taxing too muchEnemies – France, Normandy – from, loose land in France, want it back – England fought series of wars in FranceKing John – fights unsuccessful wars in France – needs money – higher taxation– barons didnt like this – VYTVOŘÍ PARLIAMENT –parley = French for speakMagna Charta was written during the reign of King John Lackland (1215)Magna Charta limits power of the king, also says that king needs to respect legal procedures and that he needs to accept that his decisions will be also limited by lawking is no more above the lawthere was written some rights of subjects (for example not to be punished for rebelling, appeal against unlawful imprisonment)there should be someone to advise the king (parliament)first parliament – most important aristocracy –lords, in different important cities, king negotiate with themthey are worried about being punished (guys kteri dotlacili krale do pozice) –setting up of idea of independent justicethey want to bring more people –mayors of towns,merchants – each town/place to elect/choose who is going to represent them – IDEA OF 2 HOUSESA) 1215 establishment of parliament, establishment ofHouse of Lords (representing next level of society)parliament also set up that justice is independentMagna Charta introducesCommon Law(one law for all)modern state comes from the early 13th century1340 separation of two houses House of lords and House of commonsHouse of lordswas developed from theGreat Council (advised king during medieval times)composed of noblemen, church and representatives of counties of England and WalesB) House of commonswas the lower house of Parliament of Englandspeaker of the house (chief officer and the highest authority) - War of the roses – parliament is not that important, - then Tudor dinasty during a reign of James I who was the first Scottish king, parliament became more powerful, than kingparliament became the primal power in the state16th century (Tudors) – parliament centralized in London – Westminster palace – Henry 7 and 8modernized parliament – modern traditionsoligarchy then democracyparliament makes decisions(speaker of the house)– tradition, telling king sm he didn’t want to hear – then loose land or get executed -17th century – less then 10% have the vote -first past the post – 17th century – idea, Boroughs – areas, Constituency – small areas (nowdays depends on population) – thenHouse of commons – representative of area – NOT PROPORTIONAL The Civil War 1642-51series of civil wars betweenParliamentarians (“roundheads”) andRoyalists(“cavaliers”)England protestant country – catholic church is weak –Protestantism – religion has political aspect – do not respect idea of having all power on hands of the kingXPuritans – religious fanatics, open for business – wantend of absolutism, supporters of independent parliament, some want king to be under parliament, want reform the church and idea of monarchyRoyalists – want king to be head of the stateClash about religion but actually aboutdivine right of king – believe that king is pointed by God, he has all rightsquestion if they really need the king (they want to limit his powers and make parliament more powerful)principally over the way of England’s governancethe war ended with parliamentarian victory at theBattle of Worcesterreplacement of English monarchy withCommonwealth of Englandthe war established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without parliament agreementparliament is going to be able to remove king if they need itCharles IIthey let him have many powers as he likes, many mistresses he likes Cromwell – 1658 dies – no one to take over, 1660 election – lets have king again – has absolute power, he can do what he wants, but powerfull puritans keeping their tittuls Cavalier parliament – roylalist 1670 parliament ban everybody in parliament – - political opposition is not divided by religion – political fractions – 17th – children of puritans Tories = royalists, supporters of the king Tories – tradition of monarchy, conservative, supportive of monarchy, want stability, irish gaelic word ?irish catholic1670-1680Whigs – didn’t like James II, liberal – Scottish word for house thief,Scottish protestant – meant as an insultMerchant capitalism (making money through trade)James II of England 1685he was secretly catholic – attitude towards absolutism, about politicas and powerTories and Wings did not liake him – W – against, T – supporters (podporovali stabilitu a monarch.)parliament becomes split by political believewe can see first political parties (Tories and Whigs)they made agreement in 1688 that James II did too much troublethey wantedWilliam of Orange to be a kingGlorious revolution – 1688-90, James II. Replaced by W of O, ESTABLISH CONSTIUTIONAL MONARCHYEstablish idea of constitutional monarchyTo some extend establish idea of human rights 1708 – british parliament – kingdowm of great Britain, united kingdom 1802 1715 Hanowerian dynasty of kings - judicial branch – common law – system of legal precedenc - king represents – executive branch Bill of Rightsestablishes constitutional monarchyit lays down limits on the powers of the monarch and sets out rights of Parliamentunwritten constitution (it’s written, but not in one document)it’s made up of European law (Parliame