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23. Post war america

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23 . Post war America profile: A history of Black America state: McCarthyism, Cold War, Vietnam, the Sixties 1526– first use of African slaves in present day US by the Spanishracial science (scientific racism)16thcentury to 1808–the transatlantic slave trade (majority of slaves were traded in the 18th and early 19th centuries continuing after it was outlawed (nezákonyý) by the British and Americans)1850Eugenics (set of beliefs that aim to improve genetic quality of human population), part of Victorian period1607 first colonyJames Town(first Africans in Jamestown) 1640s onwards at first slavery was mixed with indentured servitude and Africanslaves had some rights and an uncertain (nejasný) legal statusindentured (to have contract, legal obligation)servitude put you in special program and for 7 years you work, you have legal rights, you can’t be killed, tortured but you can’t run away (work without a pay of the indenture for a period time) if you run you are punished, if you don’t work you don’t get foodfor Irish it would be punishment they had harder conditions1619 first African at indentured servitudeJohn Punchan African indentured servant who ran away and was then sentenced to life long slaveryfor the first time, Africans are treated differentthis case started to set the pattern and Africans in America started to be deemed outside of English common law and so have no rights, for example a child of a female slave would no longer have the status of his/her father but that of the mother which was handy for male slave ownersElizabeth Keyone of the first black people of North American coloniesshe was putted for her safety in indentured servitudebecause she is black the family didn’t want to realise her when it was timeshe was daughter of Englishman so it was illegalshe was also a baptized Christianbecause of these two factors her husband William Grinstead argued successfully that she should be freed (common-law)they were through several courts they had different ideas about this situation but the highest court said that she has her rights (she got paid from the family cloths, corn, …)some Africans managedto gain free statusstarting the northern tradition offreemen hereditary indentured servitude (children of indentured servants were born free / slaves children were property of owners)meanwhile, as Britain’s economy improved fewer British people opted to go into indentured servitude and the states especially in the south needed more and more slaves for cheap laboursurprisingly only about 350,000 Africans were taken to the actual United States as slaves but with little chance of being freed and children having the status of their mother the majority of black Americans were slaves (today 50 million Afro-Americans live in the USA)living standards of UK went up1644 slavery became themain source of labour in the southern coloniesthe North is looking for industrial futurethe South they wanted to keep slave economy1860sdeclaration of independenceend of slaverythe deep South (how to keep power? )violence orsystematic laws of raceJim Crow lawsunderground railway (secret routs and safe houses in United States and used by enslaved African American to escape into free states and Canada)bounty hunters were allowed to pursue them but often simply kidnapped free blacks, especially children, and took them southin we have Britain antislavery movementAbolition movement(movement to end slavery)who escaped to UK was free idea that black man is sexual threatviolence and intimidationsharecropping(is a form of agricultural in which a landowner allows a tenant (nájemce) to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land)great movement 1840s Harlem, NY, Detroit, Chicago (black nation is migrating to north)that means you have votersyou can see social economic segregation (white flight – large scale migration of white people from areas becoming more racially or ethnoculturally diverse) 1861-1865 the Civil War.(600 000 deads) 1863 emancipation declaration freeing slaves from confederate states but not slave states which had not rebelled (in the North was slavery abolished firstly)1865 amendment outlawed slavery and indentured servitude apart from for prisoners1865/66 Formation of theKu Klux Klan by Nathan Bedford Forrest, a confederate general (anti Afro Americans)1870s/1880s a turbulent time, the beginning of Jim Crowat first violence was used to prevent aRepublican (black, pro US) political leadership from being establishedlater theDemocrats developed a system of segregation laws (Jim Crow laws – voters had to be registered, literacy test was required and yours grandfather had to own a field) to maintain something close to the pre-civil war status quoliteracy test (if you want to vote you need to have skill of reading, black didn’t read),grandfather clause(if your grandfather had some land you can vote, they were slaves so they didn’t have any lands)black people in the South went from being slaves to share-cropperslynching became more common as Afro-Americans no longer had economic value as slavesone estimate puts the number of lynching at 3,445, excluding other forms of murder and official executions, from 1882 to 1964late 1800s the great migration as Afro-Americans left the Deep South and headed north as part of industrializationWhite Flight and socio-economic segregationwhen black people came into the cities on the north, white moved out (disaster for them from the economic point of view)1940s lynching is out of fashioninterracial relationships were strictly prohibiteddespite the fact that slavery was abolished, black people still didn’t have the same status as a white people (for example the prices of houses decrease tremendously in the black areas)1915 Birth of a nation – film (generally the depiction of Afro-Americans in movies and TV was at best patronizing at worst dehumanizing until the 1960 – (early Disney)1900s Afro-American soldiers served in the US military in segregated units until

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