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6. London

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6. London London has been the capital city of United Kingdom for centuries. With a population about 7 million, it’s one of the most populated and biggest city in Europe. It’s also one of the most cosmopolitan cities and the largest financial and commercial centre in Europe. A mix of people from all over the world have made it their home. History The city is 2,000 years old. At first the Romans chose to settle there and created the city of Londinium next to the River Thames. The River Thames was useful for merchant ships and trading, and today the river is still important for transport and tourism. The biggest turning point(=mezník) in London’s history was The Great fire which was a major conflagration(=rozsáhlý požár) that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666. The fire arose in Pudding lane and consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul's Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities. Christopher Wren was an architect who was charged to do rebuilding of destroyed parts of London. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches, including what is regarded as his masterpiece, St. Paul's Cathedral which is named after the patron saint of London. I also would like to mentionthe Blitz, from the German word Blitzkrieg meaning 'lightning war', which was the name used by the British press to describe the heavy air raids carried out over Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War. In this time wasLondonsystematically bombed by the Luftwaffe for 56 days. Transportation London has an excellent transportation system to get you where you need to go. The London Underground, or tube, is the world’s first underground railway for passengers, beginning service in 1863. The city’s bus line is known for its famous red double-decker buses. If you sit on the top deck, you will get a nice view of the sights on your journey. Sights London’s beautiful parks cover almost one third of the city and once were defined as the lungs of London.Hyde Park is the largest one, mainly famous for itsSpeaker’s Corner. Here, people, often standing on chairs or boxes, could make speeches on anything they wanted.St. James’s Park is one of the oldest green spaces in the city. In the 16th century, Henry VIII transformed this unhealthy and marshy area into a hunting domain. Today, the park has a lake, black swans, squirrels, colourful flowerbeds and borders Buckingham Palace. One of the most famous palaces in the world,Buckingham Palace has been used as a royal residence since 1837 when Queen Victoria ascended(=nastoupila)the throne.Queen Victoria Monument, made of marble(=mramor) and bronze, was erected in front of the palace. Tower Bridge is a characteristic landmark of London. It’s named after the Tower of London that stands next to it. Two fixed sections unite the towers to the river bank and a hydraulic mechanism can raise and lower the bridge in less than two minutes to permit(=povolit) the passage of high ships. The Tower of London is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It was built byWilliamthe Conqueror in the 11th century. For a time it was a royal palace, then a prison and also a royal zoo. Now you can see there ravens that are important because of story, which says, that the Tower will fall down, if they leave. The Tower of London is guarded by special guards called Beefeaters. Big Ben is a big clock tower in Westminster, one of the London boroughs. It is a part of the Houses of Parliament. The bells ring a special melody known all over the world. Must-sees (sights, museums, theatres, etc.) Cultural diversity / migration Parts of London (West, East End, City, way of life, etc.) Personal experience? London´s pastLondinium - Romans Great Fire of London WWII bombing etc.

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