8. Maturitní téma - William Shakespeare + your favourite english vriting book
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WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE He is one of the best and most important English poets and playwrights ever. He was born in April 1564 and he died in April 1616. He wrote 37 dramas, 154 sonnets, 2 long epic poems. Most of them were translated in all important languages. Some of his best-known works: Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Richard II, Macbeth, Julius Caesar, Shakespeare’s Sonnets, The Taming of the Shrew,… He had 7 siblings and he was the oldest son. They lived in Hanley Street but their original house burned down in 17 century, so now there is only copy of this house and inside there is the Shakespeare’s museum. When he was 18 he got married with Anne Hathaway who was for 8 years older than him. 6 months after the marriage their daughter Susanna was born. In the course of time they had two other children – twins Hamnet and Judith. After the birth of the twins ensued the period from which we have no verified information. In literature is this period which lasted from 1585 to 1592 called as “lost years”. There exist many versions about these 7 years – for example that Shakespeare run away to London because of some crime or that he did the teachers job on the countryside – but there’s nothing to prove that. We can’t precisely say when Shakespeare came to London and when his theatre career started, because it was sometimes in the “lost years” period. But in 1592 the Robert Green’s critics appeared: “… there is an upstart Crow, beautiful with our feathers, that with his Tiger’s heart wrapped in a Player’s hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only shake-scene in a country.” Most of literature explorers are identical to the fact that Green blamed Shakespeare because he tried to be as well as the writers with university education (he has only the gymnasium). This attack was the first mention about the Shakespeare’s theatre career. Most of his dramas seemed to be written from 1590 to 1604. From the beginning he wrote predominantly comedies and later the historic dramas and tragedies. He elevated the historic theme to top of the then art. In 1599 company Lord Chamberlain’s Men built the Globe theatre and moved there and Shakespeare became the owner of the one tenth. Because of that, he was well ensured. When the Globe theatre burned down the company moved in Blackfrias theatre. Romeo and Juliet It’s one of the most known Shakespeare’s dramas – it’s a tragedy. The story takes place in Italian Verona. There lived two important families – Capulet and Montague. These two families were fighting for a very long time. One day in Capulet’s residence was a masquerade ball. Romeo stayed there and he met Juliet. He told that he had never known the love before he had met her. They fell in love together. Then the famous balcony scene ensues, when they said each other about their love. They decided to get married and they came to Romeo’s confidant Friar Laurence. He told that he would marry them. But one day after, Romeo with his friend Mercutio met Tybalt. They argued and fought and suddenly Tybalt killed Mercutio and then Romeo killed Tybalt in revenge. When the families found it out, Capulet wanted Romeo to be dead. But Romeo’s parents persuaded them and Romeo was only expelled to Mantova. Juliet’s parents wanted her to marry Paris. But Juliet was already married with Romeo. She came to Friar Laurence, because she didn’t know what to do. He advised her to drink the fake poison – after she would drink it she would look like she is dead. She agreed. Friar Laurence wrote the letter about it and he sent it to Romeo. But he had never got it. When Romeo returned to Verona, he found Juliet dead and he drank the real poison. After a while Juliet woke up and saw him, so she stabbed herself to death. That’s the end of dispute over Capulet’s and Montague’s family. They became reconciled and they built the golden statues of Romeo and Juliet which stay in Verona up to now. Hamlet It takes place mostly in the royal castle in Elsinor. Hamlet is the Crown Prince. One day the ghost of his dead father appeared to Hamlet and he told him, that his murderer is Hamlet’s uncle Claudius – he poured the poison into his ear when he was sleeping. After his death, Claudius married Hamlet’s mother and he becomes the king. But the problem is that no one believed Hamlet. He wanted to take revenge on Claudius. It completely occupied his mind. That’s why he pretended to be insane and to have visions. He wasn’t absolutely sure about Claudius’s guilt and the pretending of insanity can help him to know the way of thinking of other people. Some wandering actors came to the castle and Hamlet inserted into one of their performances the reconstructing scene of his father’s murder and he waited for Claudius’s reaction. Claudius run away and confirmed his guilt. Hamlet was hesitating with the revenge when he saw that Claudius was praying to God and he regretted. Hamlet wanted to tell to his mother about his first vision, but he noticed that someone was listening to them behind the curtain. He thought it was Claudius so he stabbed there, but it was Polonius – his lover’s Ofelia father. Claudius found out that Hamlet was dangerous for him so he wanted him to be executed in England. Hamlet wouldn’t know that, but he did, so he survived. He came back to Denmark to Ofelia’s burial – she gone mad because of her father’s death. Ofelia’s brother linked up with Claudius and they challenged Hamlet to duel. Claudius gave to Laertes the sharp sword with poisoned spire and Hamlet got the blunt sword. In the end it passed of the duel in which Hamlet killed Laertes with poisoned sword, but he was hurt too. He died of poisoning, but before that he killed Claudius. Hamlet’s mother saw all of it and he drunk poisoned wine which laid Claudius before the duel. The only person who survived was Horacio, who narrated the story. - It is the typical Shakespeare’s ending