American History I.
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American history I. Christopher Columbus in 1492 – “official discovery” 1584 – 1st colonisation wave – by Sir Walter Raleigh (pirate, hired by queen Elisabeth I. – virgin queen) – Virginia (failure) South – Jamestown (king James I.) – not permanent at first, then permanent agriculture, first plantations North – group of puritans (1620) – Plymouth – Ship Mayflower industrial – Pilgrim Fathers – first permanent settlement colonies!!! 1st ½ 18th century – Wars in AmericaNew York (former Dutch, now English colony) - 1763 France defeated - England needed money because the war was expensive => more laws English colonies couldn’t trade with France or Spain colonieslaws against US industry –> industry prohibited, just raw materials for EnglandUS colonies had to pay for English armyspecial tax on things of everyday use (tea, paper) –> people really angry → 16th December 1773 Boston Tea Party - 50 Americans dressed as Indians threw tea from English ships into water, which is the first act of violence against England –> triggered war 1774 – first Continental Congress in Philadelphia – forms unofficial government – decides to start buying weapons 1775 – first shots – English army wanted to confiscate US weapons 2nd Continental Congress – US army established – George Washington 4th July 1776 Declaration of Independence (T. Jefferson) – war between England and US US ARMY ENGLISH ARMY + their own land + highly trained proffesionals + revolutionary army (motivation) + good officers - poor officers - expensive (transport 3000 mil) - poor training - no navy - shortage of supplies - desertion – at first England winning – 1777 Battle of Saratoga turning point of the warUS army wonsupport from France, Spain, HollandNorth under US control – 1781 England surrendered (lord Cornwallis) – 1785 Peace Treaty – 1789 US constitution (the most democratic) 1789 – 1850 US spread 1860 Lincoln – new US president (slavery abolished) North - Union - industry South - confederation - 5 mil people + 4 mil slaves - agriculture – USA divided –CIVIL WAR 1861 – 1865 – North not very successful at first (south supported by England) – 1863 Battle of Gettisburg - turning point of the war - South defeated - g. Grant, g. Lee 1st April 1865 – Richmond (South capital) conquered14th April Lincoln shot at theatreall people equal, slaves free – > KKK (Kukluxklan)1867 USA buys Alaska1869 USA buys Hawaii