Famous Czech Writer
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3 Famous Czech Writer a) Jaroslav Hašek Jaroslav Hašek is a Czech writer who is known for us as a rebel in our literature because of his life style. He was born 30th March 1883 in Prague as a son of an university professor. He was studying a grammar school, but he had to leave it because of his standing. He finished trade academy later, but he left his job in a bank and he went to the Balkans to help makedian nationalists. In 1907 he was written down to the black document in Vienna as an anarchist. He was appending anarchistic leaflets between Czech miners. In this time his life style was very eccentric. He was roaming round the Europe and his home was in the pubs. He became an editor in a journal called Svět Zvířat and with his satires he teased authorities. For this satires he was arrested for a short time. When he was released he established a shop with a dogs. In a first year of a 1st world war he went to the Russia, and he joined Czech legion there. However he didn’t feel well there so he transferred to the Red Army. He received political function there. In 1920 he returned to the homeland. At this time he started to write his immortal Švejk, unfortunately he didn’t finish this book because he died 3rd January 1923. However, the fourth episode finished his best friend Karel Vaněk. (the book is called: Destinies of a good soldier Švejk during the world war) It’s not easy to answer the question who is Švejk. Švejk’s behavior, his acts and statements can be often explained in two ways and it’s sometimes very difficult how to interpret it. Sometimes we can think that he is a fool, in the other case he seems to be very clever. However, in many cases we tend to the opinion that he is arrant rogue. While the attitude or character of the other persons in this novel it’s quite easy to identify, Švejk can be considered both as a positive and negative hero. In character of this person, Hašek demonstrated his individual artistic technique. The characters in the novel can be sorted into two groups. There can be recognized negative characters of Austrian officers representing old system. They are introduced from the point of view of grotesque and parody. On the other hand there is a group of characters representing common people. They are described by humor and with pronounced sympathy. Švejk can be perceived as a bridge linking those two groups. In terms of his contact with people suffering from the tragedy of war he plays a positive and optimistic role. Švejk’s grotesque approach to all situations is already shown in a first scene. He is sitting on a hand truck because of his rheumatism. Miss Műller is going with him round the Prague and he is screaming war slogan „ ...to Belgrade ! ... ‘‘. All the scenes and episodes have one purpose: to make fun of a war with a folk humor. In this scenes Švejk appears not as a fool but as a folk philosopher. However, in contact with military officers he appears as a helpful and ardent leatherhead.Švejk’s supplement is Mark. Mark personifies intelligence’s attitude to the war. It should be mentioned that, Hašekalso wrote down the book: My shop with a dogs and an other facetiae. b) František Běhounek From 1930s František Běhounek propagated science in literarure. He wrote adventurous prose, science - fiction novels and science works from sphere of radiology and atomic physics. František Běhounek was born on 28th October 1898 in Prague. When he was young he was attracted by Julius Verne’s novels. In Prague he attended secondary school. In 1916 he enrolled at Charles University where he studied mathematics and physics. He finished his studies in 1920. Then he studied at Mrs Marie Curie - Sklodowská in Paris for two years. In 1926 she recommended him as a member of expedition to the Arctic with Amundsen, Ellsworth and Nobile. There he measured radioactivity of atmosphere. He became also a member of the second expedition to the Arctic with Umberto Nobile in 1928. But Nobile’s dirigible Italia wrecked and the expedition had to live on an ice floe for several weeks. They were rescued by Russian ice-breaker Krasin. After a year he was habilitated for a senior lecturer for radioactivity studies. From 1933 to 1945 he was a director of State Radiologic Institution in Prague. After The Second World War he worked in Institution of nuclear physics of Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. He was a member of committee of UNO for research of atomic heat. In 1960 he became academician of Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. He died in Karlovy Vary on 1st January 1973. His writings: His first book was namedTrosečníci na kře ledové 1928. There he depicted experience of general Nobile’s expedition to the Arctic that lived several weeks on an ice floe. This documentary story was translated to many languages. In booksTajemství polárního moře 1942, Ledovou stopou 1946, Mlha nad Atlantikem 1969, V říši věčného ledu a sněhu 1936, Robinzoni z Kronborgu 1944, V horách Větrné řeky 1947 there he depicted stories of boys or men who lived in inhospitable northern countries and who were thrown upon their bravery, tenacity, friendship, self-sacrifice and knowledge of natural sciences . BooksOstrov draků 1958 a Robinzon Želvích ostrovů 1965 resemble the above stories but these stories are located at Pacific Ocean. In novelFregata pluje kolem světa 1942 there was main hero Czech cadet who travelled with warship Novara in years 1857 - 1859. Life of travellers, survivors and discoverers he depicted in booksLidé a póly, Kniha Robinzonů, Lovci paprsků. After he read diary of our African traveller Emil Holub he rewrote his story in bookNa sever od Zambezi 1946. In booksDům zelených přízraků 1969, Rokle u Rjukanu 1966 there he employed his knowledge about radioactivity. Scientific presumptions and logical deduction it was base to his science - fiction novelsAkce L, Robinzoni vesmíru, Projekt Scavenger. He wrote biography of Pierre Curie and Fréderic Joliot - Curie. Of course he wrote popular - scientific wo