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History of GB II.

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History of GB II. Henry VIII. - 6 wives 1st Catherine of Aragon - was from Spain –> political marriage - so England could get rid of an enemy - could not give him a son => so he wanted divorce - wasn’t possible because of his church - so he ESTABLISHED CHURCH OF ENGLAND of which he was the head so he could divorce - confiscated the Catholic Church –> became rich Elisabeth I. - had enough money from the confiscation –> people were happy because they didn’t have to pay so many taxes - she fought Spain and France –> destroyed their ships - England became sea superpower - she died in 1603 without an heir James I. (England)/ James VI. (Scotland) - son of Elisabeth’s cousin Mary Stuart (executed) Scotland catholicfeudalismabsolute king - a couple of problems based on the differences between England protestants (Henry)capitalismparliament Charles I. - civil war 1640 – 1649 KING stronger in Northlanded aristocracyCavaliers I looked like the king would win because he had more money but then came the turning point. PARLIAMENT stronger in Southbourgeoisie and merchantsOliver Cromwell (puritan)Roundheadsreorganised the armyrank were given, because of experience and not birth = more effective because motivation -1644 => Battle at Marson Moore - turning point O. C. won - 1649 => Charles I. executed The Commonwealth - O. C. abolished the parliament - he named himself Lord Protector = military dictator - people didn’t like it: it was not a republicO. C. was puritan - 1660 Commonwealth collapsed 1660 – 1688 Restoration Monarchy - invited the king back Charles II. - his powers were limited (so he couldn’t have absolute power) THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION James II. - wanted to rule without the parliament etc. - but because of his brother’s signature the parliament said NO and James was forced to escape because they didn’t have to kill anybody, the problem was solved by the power of parliament William of Orange - his wife was the eldest daughter of James II. - protestant - Bill of Rights (had to sign) limited the powers of the king (the same now)created ‘CABINET GOVERNMENT’ = group of advisors (voted with the king) - 2 political parties: Tories - landed aristocracy - supporters of a strong king Whighs - merchants - supporters of a strong parliament

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