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International Organizations

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18 – INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS International organisations are entities established by formal political agreements between their members that have the status of international treaties; their existence is recognised by law in their member countries; they are not treated as resident institutional units of the countries in which they are located. The United Nations an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.the UN was founded after the end of World War II on October, 24 1945, on the basis of Charter of the UN, by 51 states in San Francisco, nowadays it consists of 191 statessince 2007, Ban Ki-Moon has been the Secretary Generalthe headquarters is in New York, major agencies are also located in Geneva, Hague, Vienna, Montreal, BonnThe Great Assembly - made up of all member states (each state has one vote)it meets in regular yearly sessionsThe Security Council - investigates any situation threatening international peace and recommends procedures for peaceful resolution of a dispute = UN Security Council Resolutionsthe five main victors of World War II are the Security Council permanent members with veto power: The United States of America, Russia, The United Kingdom, France, People's Republic of China10 other members are elected by the Great Assembly for 2-year terms, 5 of them are replaced each yearThe International Court of Justicethe principal judicial organ of the United Nations with the seat in the Peace Palace in Hague, Netherlands15 judges elected for 15 years, 5 of them are replaced each 5 yearsSpecialized agencies under the UNUNESCO- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - its purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture IMF-International Monetary Fund – an international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked UNICEF – United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund - provides long-term humanitarian assistance to children and mothers in developing countries Other (WHO-World Health Organization,FAO- Food and Agriculture Organization The European Union an intergovernmental and supranational union of 27 democratic member states from the European continentthe European Union was established under that name in 1992by theTreaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty), however, many aspects of the Union existed before that date through the series of predecessor relationships, dating back to 1951 (European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community,…)2002 – Euro was launchedits headquarters is in Brussels and its anthem is “Ode to Joy” by Ludwig van Beethoven The Council of the EU – the mainlegislative institution of the EUconsists of ministers of the governments of each of the European Union member statesthe President of the Council is a Minister of the state currently holding the Presidency of the Council of the European Union passes EU laws on the recommendations of the European Commission and the European Parliament approves the EU budget seeks to achieve a common foreign, economic, and defense policy for the member statesThe European Commission – theexecutive bodyconsists of 27 Commissioners, one from each member state of the EUIts primary roles are: to propose and implement legislation -the power of initiative to act as 'guardian of the treaties' which provide the legal basis for the EU to regulate competition in the UnionThe European Parliament –legislative branchmembers are elected by EU citizens once every five yearsit cannot initiate legislation, but it can amend or veto it in many policy areasit assembles in Strasbourg and Brussels The European Court of Justice –judicial branchit is the Supreme Court of the European Union made up of 27 Judges and 8 Advocates General, seated in Luxembourgit controls that the EU laws are interpreted in the same way in all states The North Atlantic Treaty Organization the Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Benelux countries, France, and the United Kingdom, is considered to be the precursor to the NATO agreementit was established on 4th April 1949 by signing the North Atlantic Treaty in Washington, DC as a defensive military organizationultimately governed by its 28 member states with its headquarters in Brusselsan armed attack against 1 or more of the member states is considered as an attack against all member statesthe most senior political governing body of NATO is the North Atlantic Council The Red Cross it is a voluntary, non-governmental movementits mission is to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for the human being, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering, without any discrimination based on nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinionsthe original emblem is the red cross, nowadays others are used as well, such as red crescent, red crystal, red star of David, etc.the core tasks are: to organize nursing and care for those who are wounded on the battlefield to supervise the treatment of prisoners of war to help with the search for missing persons in an armed conflict to organize protection and care for civil populationsits headquarters is in Geneva Greenpeace an international environmental organization founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971is known for its use of nonviolent direct action campaigns to stop atmospheric and underground nuclear testing as well as bring an end to high seas whalingin later years, the focus of the organization turned to other environmental issues, including global climate changes and genetic engineering, etc.the global organization receives its income through the individual contributions, as well as from grants from ch

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