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London - capital city since 11. century – 1066 (after William the Conqueror came) - 8, 8 mil people HISTORY Romans - everything changed when Romans came –> 43 AD - they built a bridge over the river Thames - “Londonium” - lived in 1300 => 100 000 people in 1665 – Plaque (= mor) - centre in London –> the dead people between 70 000 – 200 000 - was stopped in September 1666 (Great Fire of London) 1666 Great Fire of London - started in bakery in Pudding Lane - they had narrow streets + wooden houses - 70 000 houses burnt down - 87 churches burnt down - 80% of London burnt down - they said that nobody died (officially six people dyed) London was rebuilt - by architect Sir Christopher Wren - centre is modern from 17. century WW2 - bombing - children evacuated - adults stayed in town - prince Charles was in London with his mother - 30 000 killed SIGHTS Trafalgar Square - Battle of Trafalgar - GB x French + Spain - hero was admiral Nelson (statue on a column) - he was killed in the battle - National Gallery free entrance - St. Martin’s Church Westminster - seat of legislative power House of Parliament - House of Lords - House of Commons Big Ben => bell (19 tons) Stephen’s Tower (only the tower) Westminster Abbey - church in England (Top 1) - place of royal weddings and funerals London Eye - wheel – 30 min to go around - view of London¨ Trafalgar Square - column with statue of admiral Nelson (battle of Trafalgar) - National Gallery (free entry, free toilets) - St. Martins Church - lots of street artists Picadilly Circus - square – fountain with Eros + bow - meeting point (something like our ČÁRA) - 1 side close to China town - 2 side – 2 biggest shopping streets St. Paul’s Cathedral - the only baroque cathedral/church in London - built after the great fire 1666 by Sir Christopher Wren The Globe - this is exact replica of Shakespeares theatre - performances from April to October Tower Bridge - not very old, because completed in 1894 - opens in the middle - museum of the bridge The Tower of London - was a royal seat - built by William the Conqueror (1066) - then it was a prison (very famous, like Špilberk) - Mary Stuart executed there - some of Henrys VIII. wives executed - now it is museum crown jewellsguards – Beefeaters - 6 ravens –> healthy monarchy (they have 7 ravens) Buckingham Palace - official London seat of the Queen Elizabeth II. - it was bought in 1761 - used as royal residence in 1837 - in front of it is Queen Victoria Memorial ParksSt. Regent’s ParkHyde Park – Speakers Corner, anybody can come and talk about anything but the Queen 10 Downing Street - seat of Prime Minister TRANSPORT - underground = The Tube oldest in the worldcomplicated system - buses = double decker - taxi = black cab (nowadays pink, white, green) drivers is a prestigious jobminicab (normal car) – can’t stop on the street - riverbus – quick CULTURE - lots of museums and galleries Natural History MuseumNational MuseumNational GalleryMadam Taussad’s 1. floor – wax figures 2. floor – chambers of horrors 3. floor – history of London (small model of the typical London) MODERN LONDON - The Shard 310 mhighest - O2 Arena - The Gherkin - Docklands – modern part, really expensive, made from old docks