THE HUMAN BODY. ILNESSES, AT THE DOCTORS, HOSPITALS
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THE HUMAN BODY. ILNESSES, AT THE DOCTORS, HOSPITALS The human body is the entire structure of a human being. It is made up of many different types of cells that together create tissues, which are the basis of organ system. Study of the human body structure is called the anatomy. It is important to mention that our bodies change throughout our lives. The surface of the body is covered by a layer of skin. Under the skin there is fatty tissue. We should mention that the male complexion is not fine as women complexion. Inside the body are organs. Some are in pairs and some are individual. The human body is supported by skeleton. Individual bones serve to attach the muscles. Bones are connected by joints. Among the most important bones are for example skull, spine, ribs, hip-bone, thigh-bone. Limbs can be divided into arms and legs. Arms can be found in the upper body and are connected to trunk by shoulders. It can be divided into the upper arm, which extends from the shoulder to the elbow, the forearm which extends from the elbow to the hand, wrist and the hand. Hands are made of fingers (little finger, ring finger, middle finger, index finger, thumb) and palms. The human leg includes hip, thigh, knee, calf, ankle and the foot. Foot is made up of heel, instep and toes. As the hand has five fingers, foot has five toes (little toe, ring toe, middle toe, index toe, thumb toe). Each toe and finger have a nail at the end. The human body has a natural defense system against diseases. Various bacteria and micro-organisms are dangerous invaders, who attempt to weaken and destroy our body. The most important for the defense of the human body are the white blood corpuscles. There are also red ones which transport the oxygen. Sometimes our immune system isn’t strong enough to protect us and we become ill. Among more serious illnesses are pneumonia, polio and whooping cough. There are also children diseases such as measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox, mumps, rubella. We should not underestimate the signs of being ill. It is not recommended to make self-examination using the Internet. The best thing to do is visit your doctor. In the case of a serious illness we call an ambulance that takes the patient to the hospital. When we decide to see the doctor’s office, we must take the health insurance company’s card and, in some cases, also vacation certificate. Actually, when you are doctor’s permanent patient and he has information about you in his office, you can leave the documents at home. Only when you go to the hospital or to doctor’s office you have never visited before you must bring them with you. But it’s better be safe than sorry. We can either make an appointment or our medical examination or go directly. It is important also to know surgery hours. If there are other patient waiting, we wait in a waiting room. As soon as our turn comes, the nurse calls us. The doctor asks us what the matter is and how do we feel. It is not good to hold back information about our problems. The doctor examines our body. Sometimes we need to open our mouth and the doctor examine our tonsils, examines nodes or the nurse takes a blood sample. We can get injected or the doctor prescribes some medicine. Then we go to the pharmacy and buy the medicine. Mostly we must stay in bed until the next check-up. Light diseases can be traded at home. We must stay in bed and take pills, syrups, drops or sprays. We should measure our temperature. Grave illnesses must be treated in hospital. Sometimes our general practitioner can send us to visit another doctor – a specialist. For example, dentist, cardiologist, surgeon, allergologist, psychiatrist, gynecologist or neurologist. Surgery is the branch of medicine that treats disease or injury by operative measures (appendicitis).Operations are classified as emergency, essential and elective. Oncology is the scientific study of tumours, which takes up much of an oncologist’s time. Many hospitals have a cancer centre to take care of such patients. Cancer is particularly dangerous because malignant cells are able to metastasize (spread) throughout the body by way of the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels. If you have problems with your bones, you may be sent to visit a bone doctor or orthopaedist at the hospital’s orthopaedic services unit. Other important hospital wards include cardiology where a cardiologist will examine you if you have problems with your heart, gastroenterology if you have problems with your stomach or intestines, including perhaps a consultation with a dietician who has extensive knowledge of the basic foods, or paediatrics to see a paediatrician who is concerned with the care and development of children and the treatment of diseases that affect them. Many hospitals also have OB/GYN wards with specialized doctors called gynaecologists who deal with disorders of the female reproductive system and obstetricians who deal with the birth of children. Health is the most precious thing we have. We should protect it. Prevention plays a big role, and everybody should go to regular check-up every year. Small children are vaccinated against various illnesses such as tuberculosis, tetanus, whooping cough or other diseases. Sometimes the vaccination must be repeated a few years later. A good form of prevention is healthy lifestyle, eating vitamins and visiting spa. Spa aren’t only for sick people but also for healthy ones as well. It gives us chance to restore energy and relax. In my point of view, every household should have well-stocked medical kit. It should contain at least thermometer, bandages, tourniquet, plaster, medicine (soft coal, pain killers, vitamins), disinfectants, scissors and so on. I always try to carry first-aid kit with me. You never know what happens. That is also why everyone should know how to give first aid to somebody.