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United Kingdom

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HISTORY OF UK Original inhabitants wereCelts - 100 – 400 –the Romans occupy England and Wales - 400 – 1066 –the Anglo-Saxons - driving the native British westwards - 800 AD –Vikings– on the north of England and parts of Scotland and Ireland - 1066 –the Normans– brought theFrench language and new words into English 13th century – MAGNA CARTA =King John - restricted the power of ruler and recognized the rights - very important and influential – became an important part of English law The Hundred Years’ War – 1337 – 1453 - rulers of the Kingdom of England x rulers of the Kingdom of France 1347 – the black death killed a third of the population 15th century – WAR OF ROSES - two English noble houses wanted the crown:The LancastersandThe Yorks - lasted for 30 years - the last battle – 1485 at Bosworth Field - The Lancasters wins - Henry Tudor married Princess Elizabeth and brought peace to the country 17th- 18th CENTURY-1558 – 1603 the ELISABETH ERA- England becomes wealthier cause of the wool trade -Britain – naval power -William Shakespeare - 1642 – 1651 the English Civil War – between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists - 1707 – the Act of Union 18th – 19th CENTURY -BRITISH EMPIRE – 18th - Industrial Revolution – late 18th = people begin to move into the cities and work in factories - 19th –BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR(1805) – Spain x Britain (Napoleon lost at Waterloo and Britain continued her colonial expansion) 19th – 20th CENTURY - theVICTORIAN ERA – society becomes more repressed and religious -1918 – end of the First World War -RAF – The Royal British Airforce - World War II – 1 million houses were destroyed and 40 000 civilians were killed -POLITICAL STABILITY –after WWII – gained political and financial stability; UK is member of NATO and since 1973 member of the European Union GEOGRAPHY LOCATION BRITISH ISLES – are situated off thenorth-west coast of the Continent of Europe - it lies between the North Atlantic Oceanand theNorth Sea -English Channelseparated B.I. and France - the UK consists of 4 parts –England (London),Scotland (Edinburgh),Wales (Cardiff),Northern Ireland (Belfast) -island: Hebridies, Orkney, Shetland – on the north - Channel islands – own legislative - population: 63 million CLIMATE AND WEATHER - Climate – temperate and oceanic (lot of rain) -Gulf Stream– don’t freeze, climate is influenced by the warm Gulf Stream - extreme temperatures – mild winters, coldly rainy summer - weather is extremelychangeable FAUNA AND FLORA - small variety – not enough time since the last Ice age -quite similar to Czech Republic -animals: red deer, badger, hedgehog, fox, red squirrel POPULATION -rich variety of ethnicity (Celts, Romans, Normans.. ) - long history ofimmigration: Africans, Chinese, Irish, Poles LANGUAGES - England – English - Scotland – Scottish Gaelic - Wales – Welsh - Ireland – Irish Gaelic GEOGRAPHY - not many rivers - the longest river –Severn - also a lot of lakes: The largest in Scotland –Loch Ness andLoch Lomond -most of country –lowland terrain - few mountain ranges –Cumbrian Mountains, The Pennines, Scottish Highlands - highest mountain – BEN NEVIS– 1300m GREAT UNION– 1707 (18th century) FLAG = Union Jack - crosses:ENGLAND– St. George’s Cross SCOTLAND – St. Andrew’s Cross UNITED KINGDOM FLAG(19th century) GREAT UNION IRELAND –St. Patrick’s Cross

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