USA - history
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ANGLIČTINA MATURITNÍ OTÁZKY USA – HISTORY Native Americans came from Asia > spread to the south - because of the weather - they lived from the nature1429 - Columbus discovered the continent - he wanted find new way to India > he called the people IndiansAmerigo Vespucci - explore Brasil - the continent is called after him Why did European people run to America? looking for new opportunities, starting new lifelosers, criminals (committed a crime), thieveswant to escapebecause of political, religions, economics reasons The first English colony was found in Virginia at Jamestown in 1607. But the people were dying because of diseases and Indian attack. The first successful colony was established after 1620 in Plymouth by so-called Pilgrim Fathers. Their first winter was very cold and half of them died. Those who survived the winter built houses and learnt how to fish and hunt. Friendly Indians gave them seed corn and showed them how to grow it. Pilgrims were thankful for the help > they invited Indians for a feast of “thanksgiving” THANKSGIVING - thanks to Indians, God, nature/new fertile land - giving thanks for all blessings - first was in October, today 4. Thursday in November More and more people were arriving to America during 17th and 18th centuries. The colonies along the east coast were ruled by the British. But the new Americans were discriminated by the British because they had to pay taxes. After the colonists refused to pay taxes, British soldiers were sent to Boston. A group of patriots threw a cargo of British tea into the sea in the Boston Harbour. This event is known as the Boston Tea Party. Americans began boycotting British trade. In 1775 started the War of Independence. The Congress began to work as a national government and on July 4th, 1776 they signed the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration was written by Thomas Jefferson. The document defended the American revolution against the British King. The war ended un 1783. George Washington was elected the first president. Civil war (1861 – 1863) slavery issue, fight over new territoriesnorth against south - 2 systems were criticizing each othernorth: industrial, modern, capitalist, progressive, richness, jobless - wanted abolish slaverysouth: old, agricultural (good weather), aristocratic, prosperous – slave labourAbraham Lincoln was elected as President – he wanted to abolish the slavery – end of war > all slaves were set free When First World War started in Europe the United States remained neutral. But President Wilson decided to enter the war against Germany and they helped to finish the war. Second World War began in Europe. American's prezident Franklin D. Roosevelt tried to keep the country neutral, but the Japanesse attacked in Pearl Harbor and brought the US into the war.