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Communication 1) Definition of communication1 The process of exchanging information2 , usually via a common protocol3 . This process pressumes the listener’s will to hark which means trying to understand. Communication allows humans to express the shared set ofphysical,emotional andpsychologicalneeds that are alive inside us at any given moment. Communication was described as afive-step process (Shannon-Weaver model): 1) creating or encoding the message 2) the message’s transmission through acommunication channel to recipient 3) the message is received 4) the message is interpreted 5) the message is responded to The word ofcommunication comes from Latin root‘communicare’. Ancient Romans also invented a postal system to gather a huge amount of information from provinces. 2) Levels and means of communication Levels: One-way communication (mass communication): TV, newspapers, letters, e-mails We cannot react on a message at the same time. Two-way communication: dialogue, talk on the cell/phone, video conference We can react on the message instantly. Means: Sign language (sign language itself, jungle drums, smoke signals, signals of light) Speaking (especially tone emphasis – intonation) Writing (letters) Gestures (body language – movements, posture, facemimic, eye contact) Broadcasting (telecommunications4 b) Digital telecommunications: encryption (to specify communication), digital transmission media (telegraphy); computer network: e-mails; cell phone: text messages; digital camera... , computer-mediated communication5) 3) Other types of communication a)Intrapersonal – internal communication within oneself Interpersonal – between two or more individuals b) Mass communication – communication to huge numbers of individuals through mass media Verbal communication – communication by speech Disadvantages: the situation elements such as noise, defect of speech, other people Advantages: the possibility of instant reaction at the same time Nonverbal communication: naturally accompanying the verbal one (e.g. mimic) 4) The goals of communication: What we are saying should correspond with the way we are saying it. The tone emphasis and body language should accompany the information and not lead to the misinterpretation. Prefer the consensual6 language to subjective or the inadequate expert7 one Try to understand Finish before the listeners get bored Avoid the conflict 5) Problems of communication (communication barriers): The lack of information The surplus of information Language barrier Emotional (depends on the mood) Politics Culture misunderstanding Bypassing Indiscrimination Polarisation Time lag Physical (such as background noise) Communication apprehension (anxiety influenced by one’s self-concept) 6) Being good at communication – right or wrong? Being good at communication means to beemphatic, assertive and tolerant. If you are good at it, people will appreciate it. With good communication skills you should get further. 7) Can we learn it? How and why? Communication seems to be the most important thing in our society not only for our personal life but also for our working process. Unfortunately,the communication apprehension is still a problem for many people. To learn how to communicate is quite difficult. The goal is tokeep on trying till you get to the right point: the message is responded to. There is a lot of books specialised in communication strategies but the self-training is the most important. Alsowatching how the others do communicate may be a lesson how to succeed. For people who are not much self-confident there are alsodramatic lessons which may help them with some problems. 8) Customer care in museums, professional communication with customers Customer care in museumsin general consists of giving basic information about the works or exhibits and about the museum itself. What contributes to it: the eye contact, being pleasant and having good language skills. Professional communicationwith customers:by a customer’stype of temper: Sanguinic: makes fast decisions, so that the expert help and fast work are expected Choleric: promptness and pleasant behaviour are necessary Pflegmatic: makes slow decisions, passive customer, patience and businesslike arguments are needed Melancholic: needs to contribute by his/her self-confidence friendly behaviour and time to make decision are important. The employee should represent the institution (also country if visitor is a foreigner) and try to answer customer’s questions. Wordlist via – skrze, přes transmission - přenos recipient - příjemce root – kořen, základ (slova) to gather – shromažďovat, sbírat (informace) instantly - okamžitě levels and means – úrovně a způsoby tone emphasis – zdůraznění accompany – doprovázet misinterpretation – špatný výklad consensual – obvyklý encryption - zakódování cell phone - mobil the lack / surplus of information – nedostatek / nadbytek mood - nálada communication apprehension – strach z komunikace anxiety – strach, obava concept – psychický stav bypassing – obcházení problému indiscrimination – nekritičnost polarisation – vyhrocení názorů time lag - nuda politics - názory further –přen.dál self-confident - sebevědomý exhibits - exponáty promptness – rychlost, hbitost businesslike - věcný There is a human, animal and human/animal communication. We will talk just about the first one. Information: voice (phone), video (TV), data (internet) Protocol: the set of rules in the information exchange a) Analog telecommunications: phone, radio, TV, photography, art (Theatre Arts, pictures...) Network-based visual communication e.g. web cam chat Consensual language – the meaning of the words is understandable in the whole society Subjective or the inadequate expert language – to give the words the extra meanings understandable just to a close group of people