07 travel and transport
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Travel and Transport „Travel broadens our mind“– is it worth going abroad? Impact of tourism and its phenomena Travel and transport in 21st century Travelling is a very old phenomenon. The first important travellers lived in ancient times. They toured the whole known world at that time and most of them travelled by ship. The trade was the most important reason for their travelling. It was the same in the Middle Ages. Christopher Columbus was an explorer and trader who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached America in 1492. It was a beginning of the new world history. Travelling has become very popular in the 21th century. We travel for fun or out of necessity. The technical development is very fast. So that, nowadays, the travelling is more comfortable and accessible to everybody. The distances are getting shorter and shorter (For example, in the morning you are in Prague and you can reach China even the same day.). Travelling is necessary for us these days. It takes up more time in our lives than most of us can imagine. Travelling does not mean only visiting foreign countries during the holiday or travelling on business. We also travel in our country and especially in our city. There is a huge range of means of transport. People and goods can be transported by land, by air or by water. We can use our own means of transport (car, motorbike, bicycle) or we can rely on the public transport (bus, metro, ship, plane). “Travel really broadens our mind” because people go away from their native country and live and work in another state. People like travelling as it is exciting, they can get many unforgettable experiences and earn some extra money too. They can have better work conditions in a foreign country. They can learn foreign languages very quickly and much more easily than at home. They become self-confident. They meet a lot of new friends. They can see new places and understand new cultures. They see the way of life in various countries. Every country has something different and special. Something that is common for the natives may not be understandable by the foreigners. They can have, for example, the different eating habits and cause, as a result of this, embarrassing situations. But there are also some disadvantages. Travelling can be very dangerous.You can meet bad people. You can get lost, be murdered or our money can be stolen. You can feel lonely and homesick too. If you travel abroad, you should have all the necessary documents. The most important is a passport and a visa to travel to a given country. The visa can be only a formal matter. But some countries are very careful about foreigners and the getting a visa is not easy - the USA are a good example. As I have already mentioned there are many reasons for travelling. We can travel because it is a part of our job duties, e.g. in case of travel agents, managers, professional sportsmen and singers. There are many others reasons for travelling, but probably the most common reason is the tourism. The first tourists appeared in the 18th century. They went to see the big European cities. Some of them were so brave that they visited even other continents, which was very dangerous. It was not until the 19th century that the cultural tourism developed into the leisure and health tourism. It has started in Britain. Britain was the first European country with the industrial society. It offers enough time for leisure activities. Tourism means the act of travelling for a recreation purpose, and a provision of special services for the tourists. According to the official definition of the World Tourist Organization a tourist is ´someone who travels at least eighty kilometers from home for the purpose of recreation´. SometimesTourism andTravel are used interchangeably. In this contexttravel has a similar definition totourism, but travelling implies a more purposeful journey.Tourism is a part of the service industry and one of the most gainful parts. Big cities support the tourist industry and they want to have benefits from tourists, especially from foreigners. Tourism may be classified into the following types: Inbound international tourism: People come to our country. Outbound international tourism: People from our country go to other countries. Internal tourism: Tourism in our own country. Some of special forms of tourism: Adventure tourism: Travelling in dangerous regions, or adventurous sports such asmountaineering andhiking. Armchair tourism andvirtual tourism: You do not travel physically, but you explore the world through internet, books, TV, etc. Cultural tourism: It includesurban tourism, visiting historical or interesting cities and towns (such asLondon,Paris,Rome andPrague) and experiencing their cultural heritage. Disaster tourism: Travelling to a disaster with the objective to help, but because it is interesting. Hobby tourism: Travelling for the purpose of meeting others with similar interests or with the same hobby interests. Sex tourism: Travelling for the purpose of sexual activity, usually with prostitutes Sport tourism: There is a huge range of sports, which we can do during a vacation Space tourism TheWorld Tourism Organization forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 % . In some countries there are legal restrictions on travelling, especially abroad. The Czech people experienced these restrictions before 1989. They could not travel so easily because communist states restricted travelling. It was dangerous for them, because people discovered a better life. After 1989 the political situation changed and the borders were opened. But some states still restrict travelling (Cuba, China.). Some of the European countries formed the European Union (EU). The Czech Republic is a member of this organization too. Travelling in the area of EU has become easier. You need to have only an identity card if you travel into the countries which are the members of EU.