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1. HISTORY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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The Czech Republic- history Important events (2-3), What? Who? Where? When? Personalities (2-3) How the country was/is developing/changing after 1989? I believe that even though that Czech Republic is consider as a small country, it has very long and eventful history.These lands were under the control of many rulers and regimes, and have been known by a variety of different names. In the 4th century BC Celtic tribes settled in the area. In the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo became the ruler of the first known Slavic state in Central Europe, which was partly situated in present-day Moravia. The importance of Moravia grew further, and in 833 Great Moravia was created. While Great Moravia declined towards (klesat směrem k) the end of the 9th century, the Czech state was integrated (sjednocený) by the Přemyslids and prospered. During the middle Ages, a Czech state played an important role in Europe and was part of the Holy Roman Empire.The Czech King Charles IV of the Luxembourg dynasty even became the Holy Roman Emperor in the half of 14. centrury. In the 16th century the country came under the Habsburg reign. Twice in its history, the country was devastated by major political-religious conflicts: After the religious leaderJan Hus was burnt to death, the Hussite Wars started in the 15th century, and two centuries laterthe Thirty Years War (1618-1648) broke out. The latter had a devastating effect on the country and resulted in the persecution (pronásledování) of non-Catholics and the strong Germanisation politics of the Habsburg emperors. The Czech language was slowly driven away from state administration, business, and schools, and was not spoken by the upper classes. This process was finally stopped by the Czech National Revival, a cultural movement taking place n the 18th and 19th centuries; this managed to revive the Czech language, culture and national identity. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of WWI, Czechs and Slovaks joined together and formed the independent Czechoslovak Republic in 1918. DuringSecond World War (1stSeptember 1939-8thMay 1945 in Euroope) , Slovakia broke away and the Czech state was occupied by the Germans (the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia). After the war, Czechoslovakia was restored, but soon it fell under the rule of the communist party and the influence of the Societ Union. In1989, it gave to gauner (široká veřejnost) freedom through a peaceful revolution, known as aVelvet revolution. The main opposition of the regime was a group around a Charter 77. In the head of this group was for example our ex-president Vaclav Havel. After a velvet revolution and the end of communist party, the Czech state developed a lot. In the shops there were more products, the Czech got a choice to travel. In 1993 it split into two independent states. Me personally, I like the most the latest history, from 20. century. Even though, it is one of the most rough time, it is for really interesting, because it is quite recent and it shows a bravery of Czech nation.

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