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18) British Literature I. - Oscar Wilde

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18. British literature I. till the end of 19th century OSCAR WILDE LIFE  was born 16th October 1854 (Dublin) – death 30th November 1900 (Paris)  popular playwright  father – William Wilde, famous doctor  mother – Jane Wilde, wrote poetry (no work), Irish nacionalist  was educated at home o French nanny o German Government  because of this he was fluent in french, german and english  outstanding student in at Trinity College – Dublin o => schoolarship (2 yrs, 3rd year won some gold medal as excellent student)  Oxford o then he became interested in FREEMASONORY (svobodní zednáři) o also in aestheticism (interested in … whole life = divided people only into good or bad, nice or grose (nothing between)) o decadent movement o 1877 graduated o he was publishing into journals, etc.  after school he started writing professionally and he wanted to become famous => moved to London  1881 first book – COLLECTED POEMS o well received  he was travelling and giving lectures about aestheticism about clothing, equipment in house, etc… o people loved him because of his talking skills o he was touring across the USA  great success but media didn´t like it (they were posting caricatures of him)  1883 wrote his first play (badly received by the crtitics)  then he met Constance Lloyd o married o 2 sons (Vyvyan and Cyril)  1886 met Robert Ross o his 1 st homosexual lover  1887 – became editor of a magazine The Lady´s World (renamed it to The Woman´s World) o improves it a lot o added stories for children and women o discusses fashion etc.  his interest faded out and he quited (because of the salary)  1891 he met Lord Alfred Douglas called BOSIE o became lovers = because Wilde was rich… they were travelling etc. o Douglas introduced O.W. to the homosexual prostitution => Bosie´s father accused Oscar Wilde of homosexual relationship to his son (sent him a letter) => Oscar sued (žalovat) him => but he lost and bankrupt (because he had to pay all the money for expenses (výdaje na soud) for the father of Bosie => then sent to jail for 2 yrs (maximal) o homosexual love called = the love that dare not speak it´s name  PRISON o 2 yrs of hard labour o walking a treadmill o separating fibres from old navy ropes o bad food o prisoners could not speak to each others and had to wear masks so they could not be recognized o all they could was to read Bible o later he was transfered and there he could write – he wrote there a letter to Douglas (his CV) o 1897 released  after prison he went to France and used name Sebastian Melmoth o wife was sending him money <= they were separated and he never saw his sons again o saw Douglas again – but he had to leave because wife of Oscar and father of Douglas they threatened them that they won´t be sending them money anymore  Dies in Paris because of meningitis WORK  Plays o The Importance of Being Earnest o An Ideal Husband  Novels o The Picture of Dorian Gray  Fairy (stories) tales o The Happy Prince and Other Stories  De Profunds o Letter in prison The Picture of Dorian Gray  It is about a young Dorian who is not really good person. He sees himself as the best looking young man and he is too scared to grow old because then he would lost all of his beauty. So he wishes not to grow old and be still so handsome as he is and also he wishes that all his senescence goes to the picture which drew his good friend. It is actually a bit horror story because with some time the picture becomes really ugly because all of the pride together with ages of the Dorian goes there. And in the end Dorian is so scared of the picture that he decides to destroy it. But with destroying the picture he destroys himself also.

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