NEW YORK City
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NEW YORK City New York City is situated on the eastern coast of the U.S.A at the mouth of the Hudson River and the East River. It is an important sea port. The city has gotfiveparts –boroughs(samosprávné město, městský obvod): Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island. They are all linked by bridges, tunnels or ferries. There are also smaller islands in the surrounding waters, e. g. Ellis Island and Liberty Island (Liberty Island is a small uninhabited island, where the well-known the Statue of Liberty is located). . When tourists speak about NY, most of them usually only think ofManhattan. But Manhattan is only one of five New York boroughs – the most popular and the smallest one. The first inhabitants werethe Dutch in the 17th century - they settled in New York and bought Manhattan Island from the native inhabitants (Indians) for 24 dollars. The Dutch – colonists – called their new homeNew Amsterdam and it was surrounded by a wall to protect the town against the Indians. In 1664, it became an English colony and was renamed New York. After the American Revolution, NY became the new country’s first capital. New York is acity on water. Of the five boroughs, Manhattan and Staten Island are islands, Brooklyn and Queens are on Long island, and the Bronx is a peninsula. The Atlantic Ocean,the Hudson River and the East River are an important part of the city. Twenty-four million immigrants from many countries crossed the Atlantic Ocean and arrived in the USA by ship between 1892 and 1954.Ellis Island was their first stop. It is a small island lying just opposite the well-known island of Manhattan. Ellis Island was the main immigration port for immigrants entering the United States between 1892 and 1954. All immigrants had to pass medical examinations and then they were question ed by government officials. It was known as the Isle of Tears or Heartbreak Island. Nowadays Ellis Island is a museum. The Brooklyn Bridgeacross the East River is one of the most famous in the city.It´s an old suspension bridge which connects Brooklyn with Manhattan. You can drive a car or walk across it and many New Yorkers do it every day on their way to work and back home. The view from it is facinating. Nicknames of NYC:The Melting Pot –because there are plenty of ethnical groups living together in one place. Other nicknames includeGotham and theNaked City. It is also calledThe City That Never Sleeps because of the fast and active life that its inhabitants lead.The Big Apple is one of the nicknames for New York – the largest US city. Do you want to know why New York is called the Big Apple? It happened in the 1920s. Jazz musicians who were getting ready to go to New York from the South of The USA used to say: “There are a lot of apples on the tree, but when you take NYC, you take the Big Apple!” And so, at first, NY became the Big Apple just for the jazz musicians. But New Yorkers like the nickname – it expresses how big, beautiful and busy their city is. Manhattan is the smallest part of NY. It is a rocky island between the East River and Hudson River. The origin of the word Manhattan was in an old Indian language. The Indians said “Man-a-hat-ta”, it means “Heavenly land”. Manhattan was built on a modern plan ofstreets and avenues.Most streets go fromeast to west andhave numbers instead of names.Most avenues go fromnorth to south.Broadway, the original Indian path which is now a famous theatre centre, is the only real exception to the plan – it runs from north to south along the whole Manhattan Island..Fifth Avenue, -New York’s most famous shopping street, the most expensive street in the world, full of luxurious boutiques and jeweller´s,e.g. Tiffany´s. Nowadays, Manhattan is famous for itsskyscrapers. They were built because of a lack of space and high prices of land.Wall Street is the centre of the financial life, stock exchanges and banks.SoHo (South Houston) – the world of contemporary artists, art galleries and restaurants.. In Manhattan there are many luxury department stores, hotels, cafés.. Everyone knows theEmpire State Building( the highest skyscraper in NYC) orthe Statue of Liberty. A large part of northern Manhattan is calledHarlemafter a town in the Netherlands. Black Americans live in this area. Symbols of New York: Skyscrapers and the Statue of Liberty 1. skyscrapers Skyscrapers are situated especially in Manhattan. One of the most famous skyscrapers is called theEmpire State Building. It has about 102 floors. At the top there is a TV tower and a restaurant. Visitors can go by lifts which are very quick – they can get to the 86th floor in one minute only. Then they must change lifts to get to the very top. Empire State Building is the most visited one. It has about 30.000 visitors every day. The skyscraper was built in 1931. It was the highest building, not only in NY but also all over the world for a long time. Its observation deck is visited by 3 million tourists every year. Many wedding ceremonies take place here on St Valentine’s Day. TheWorld Trade Centre – known as the Twins – (WTC) was a complex of seven buildings. The centre itself was a large complex of firms, stores, restaurants and banks. It was destroyed by terrorist attacks in 2001. Rockefeller Centre –named after millionare Rockefeller, commercial buildings 2. The Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty is one of the most famous landmarks in the world. The enormous statue is 93 metres high and stands in New York harbour on the Liberty Island. For the millions of immigrants to the USA, who saw it as they sailed into NY for the first time, it became a symbol of liberty. The statue was a gift from the people of France to the people of the USA in 1866 to commemorate the first hundred years of American independence. It is a statue of a woman who symbolizes the freedom and friendship between the French and American people during the American Revolution. She holds a burning torch in her right hand and a law book in her left one