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aturitní otázka č. 18 CANADA Geography Landscape Population Government Economy Places of intrest Would you like to visit Canada and why? Geography Canada occupies the whole northern part of North America and many islands, e.g. Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and Vancouver. It lies between the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. In south it borders with the USA. Canada is the second largest country in the world and its area is about 10 million km2. Landscape Canada has large mountain areas – the Rocky Mountains, the Mackenzie Mountains and the Melville Hills. The highest mountain is Mt. Logan in the Alaska Region. The longest river is the Mackenzie (flows to the Arctic Ocean) and other big river are the Yukon, the Fraser, the Columbia and the river St. Lawrence(flows to Atlantic Ocean). ClimateThe climate varies from Arctic climate in the North with winter temperatures minus 50 degrees Celsius, to moderate climate in the east and west. The north of the country near the Artic is a cold tundra with large and beautiful forests to the south. The central plains form the prairie. Population Canada’s population is about 26 milion inhabitants. The density is one of the lowest. 89% of the land has no permanent population. 80% Canadians live in large urban centers located within 300km of the southern border. More than 40% are of British origin, 30% of French origin, 20% of continental European origin and the rest is made by Eskimos or Indians. 60% of population speaks English, about 30% speak French, the rest are languages spoken by various ethnic minorities (Italien, German, Chines,...). History The original inhabitants came to Canada some 10.000 or 25.000 years ago from Asia across a land bridge over what is now the Bering Strait. The first Europeans here were the Vikings who discovered Canada more than a thousand years ago. During the Age of Discoveries some navigators landed on the Canadian coast. First it was an Italian Caboto in 1497 but the first real exploration took place only after 1534 when Cartier discovered the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Since the 16th century large territories were occupied by the French but France lost this country in frequent wars with England during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Canada became a British dominion in 1867. National symbols Since 1964 Canada has its own national flag. It is red and in the centre there is a white square with the red maple leaf. The red stripes are symbolical of Canada´s position between the two oceans. The maple leaf has been used as a Canada´s national symbol. The Canadian anthem is called: “Oh, Canada”. Government Canada is the member of many international organizations. Economy Canada belongs to the G-8 countries. Canada has rich sources of raw materials. The most important part of its economy is mining: - uranium, zinc, coal, metal (the main mining provence is Alberta). It is also important producer of gold, silver and aluminium. Other important branches of economy are agriculture. Canada is the second largest exporter of wheat. 80 % of farmland is in parairies. Other agriculture products are: oats, vegatables – potatoes, etc. In animal production are very important cattle breeding and fishing. Engineering: cars, ships are built on the banks of the Great Lakes, in Montreal and Toronto. Heavy industry is situated around the Great Lakes. Places of intrest Canada is famous for its beautiful nature, especially near the Great Lakes and the Slave and Bear Lake. Visitors to Canada usually want to see the Niagara Falls. The Canadian part is called the Horseshoe Fall and it is 49 high and almost 1 km wide. Canada has about 30 national parks. The most known is Jasper national park in Alberta. In those parks people can admire the scenery or they can walk, climb, go sihgtseeing, go fishing or go skiing there. Toronto It lies on the coast of Lake Ontario. There are many interesting buildings, not only the Canadian Tower. Very interesting is new Toronto City Hall. This city is known as one of most competitors of National Hockey League (NHL). Would you like to visit Canada and why?